References:
.
1. The Philatelic History of Diabetes: In Search of a Cure. Lee J. Sanders
.
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2. The History of Diabetes. John Wiley Publishing. D.A. Pyke
.
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3. Insulin: Discovery and Controversy. Louis Rosenfeld
Clinical Chemistry 48:12:22702288 (2002).

.
.
.
Main development in the history of diabtes
.
.
1500 BC
Polyuria, wasting, infection are mentioned in several ancient cultures.
..
150 
Aretaeus of Cappodocia gave the disease the name diabetes.
.
1869
Paul Langerhans discovered islet cells in the pancreas. 
.
1899
Oscar Minkowski discovered pancrease is important in regulation of blood glucose.
.
1921
Banting and Best isolated a pancreatic extract that lowers blood glucose in pancreatectomized dogs. 
.
1944
Janbon discovered the hypoglycaemic effect of oral sulphonylurea.
.
1950-1980
DNA technology allows development of genetically engineered "human" insulin. 
.
1980-1989
Blood glucose self- management gives patients greater control and flexibility in managing diabetes. 
.
21st Century
Research continues for cures  to both type I and type II diabetes including the possibilities of islet cell transplant.
Section 13 References

1. St. Vincent Joint Task Force for Diabetes: Report of the Visual Impairment Subgroup. British Diabetic Association/Department of Health 1994.

2. National Society to Prevent Blindness: Vision problems in the US: Facts and figures. The American Academy of Ophthalmology Preferred Practice Patterns Series: Diabetic Retinopathy 1993, 19-20

3. Ghafour IM, Allan D, Foulds WS: Common causes of blindness and visual handicap in the West of Scotland. British Journal of Ophthalmology 1982, 67:209-13

4. Klein R, Klein BEK, Moss SE: The Wisconsin epidemiologic study: II Prevalence and risk of diabetic retinopathy when age at diagnosis is less than thirty years. Archeives of Ophthalmology 1984, 102:520-6.

5. Klein R, Klein BEK, Moss SE: The Wisconsin epidemiologic study: II Prevalence and risk of diabetic retinopathy when age at diagnosis is thirty or more years. Archives of Ophthalmology 1984, 102:527-33.

6. Kohener EM, Stratton IM, Aldinton SJ: Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy at diagnosis of NIDDM in the UKPDS. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 1993, 34:713 (Abstract).

7. Scobie IN, MacCuish AC, Barrie T: Serious retinopathy in a diabetic clinic. Lancet 1981, 2:520-1

8. Foulds WS, MacCuish AC, Barrie T: The cost effectiveness of screening for diabetic retinopathy. Seminars in Ophthalmology 1987, 2:45-50.

9. Klein R, Klein BEK, Moss ME: Visual impairment in diabetes. Ophthalmology 1984, 91:1-9.

10. Klein R, Klein BE, Moss SE, Cruickshanks KJ: The Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy: the long term incidence of macular oedema. Ophthalmology 1995, 102: 7-16.

11. Buxton MJ, Sculphur MJ, Ferguson BA: Screening for treatable diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic Medicine 1991, 8:371-7

12, Foulds WS, MacCuish A, Barrie T, Green FD, Scobie IN, Ghafour IM et al. Diabetic retinopathy in the West of Scotland: its detection and prevalence, and the cost-effectivness of a proposed screening programme. Health Bulletin (Edin) 1983, 41:318-26.

13. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group: Grading diabetic retinopathy from stereoscopic color fundus photographs - an extension of the modified Airlie House Classification: ETDRS report No. 10 Ophthalmology 1991, 91:786-806.

14. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group: Photocoagulation for diabetic macular oedema. Archives of Ophthalmology 1985, 103:1796-806.

15. Weinberger D, Fink-Cohen S, Gaton DD, Priel E, Yassur Y: Non-retineosvascular leakage in diabetic retinopathy. British Journal of Ophthalmology 1995, 79:728-31

16. Rand LI, Krolewski AS, Aiello LM: Multiple factors in the prediction of risk of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. New England Journal of Medicine 1985, 313:1433-7

17. Klein R, Moss SE, Klein BEK, Davis MA, deMets DL: The Wisconsin epidemiologic study of diabetic retinopathy. XI. The incidence of macular oedema. Ophthalmology 1989, 96:1501-10.

18. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group: The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. New England Journal of Medicine 1993, 329: 977-86.

19. Tesucher A, Schnell H, Wilson PWF: Incidence of diabetic retinopathy and relationship to baseline glucose and blood pressure. Diabetes Care 1988, 11246-51.

20. Knowles WC, Bennet PH, Ballatine EJ: Increased incidence of retinopathy in diabetics with elevated blood pressure. New England Journal of Medicine 1980, 302: 645-50.

21. Klein R, Klein BEK, Moss SE, Davis MD, de Mets DL: Is blood pressure a predictor of the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy? Archives of Internal Medicine 1989, 149:2427-32.

22. Moloney JBM, Drury MI: The effect of pregnancy on the natural course of diabetic retinopathy. American Journal of Ophthalmology 1982, 93:745-56.

23. Klein BEK, Moss SE, Klein R: Effect of pregnancy on progression of diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes CAre 1990, 13:34-40.

24. Phelps RL, Sakol P, Metzger JA et al: Changes in retinopathy during pregnancy: correlation with regulation of hyperglycemia. Archives of ophthalmology 1986, 104: 1806-10.

25. Klein BEK, Moss sE, Klein R, Surawics TS: Serum cholesterol in the Wisconsin epidemiologic study of diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes Care 1992, 15:282-7.

26. Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research group: Preliminary report on the effects of photocoagulation therapy. American Journal of Ophthalmology 1976, 81:383-96.

27. British Multicentre Study Group: Photocoagulation for proliferative diabetic retinopathy: a randomized controlled trial using the xenon arc. Diabetologia 1984, 26: 109-15.

28. British Multicentre Study Group: Photocoagulation for diabetic maculopathy. Diabetes 1983, 32:1010-6

29. Wilson JMG, Junger G: The principles and practice of screening for disease. Public Health Papers: wHO 1968, 34-8.

30. Javitt JC, Canner JK, Sommer A: Cost effective ness of current approaches to the control of retinopathy in Type 1 diabetes. Ophthalmology 1989, 96:255-64.

31. Dasbach EJ, Fryback DG, Newcomb PA, Klein R, Klein RE: Cost effectiveness of strategies for detecting diabetic retinopathy. Medical care 1991, 29:20-39.

32. Rohan TE, Frost CD, Wald NJ: Prevention of blindness by screening for diabetic retinopathy: a quantitative assessment. British Medical Journal 1989, 299: 1198-201.

33. MacCuish AC: Early detection and screening of diabetic retinopathy. Eye 1993, 7: 254-9.

34. Patel V, Rassam SMB, Kohner EM: Screening for diabetic retinopathy in general practice: feasibility and limitations. Diabetic Medicine 1992, 8:371-7.

35. Barrie T, MacCuish AC: Assessment of non-mydriatic fundus photography in detection of diabetic retinopathy. British Medical Journal 1986, 293: 1304-5.

36. Hammond GJ, Shackleton J, Flanagan DW, Heritage J, Wade J: Comparison between an ophthalmic optician and an ophthalmologist in screening for diabetic retinopathy. Eye 1996, 10:107-12.

37. Burns-Cox CJ, Dear Hart JC: Screening of diabetics for retinopathy by ophthalmic opticians. British Medical Journal 1985, 290:1052-4.

38. Taylor R, Lovelock, Turnbridge WMG et al: Comparison of non-mydriatic retinal photography with ophthalmoscopy in 2159 patients, mobile retina camera study. British Medical Journal 1990, 310:1243-7.

39. Leese G, Ahmed S, Newton RW et al: Use of mobile screening unit for diabetic retinopathy in rural and urban areas. British Medical Journal 1993, 306: 187-9.

40. Retinopathy Working Party: A protocol for screening for diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic Medicine 1991, 8:233-7.

41. Ryder B: Screening for diabetic retinopathy. British Medical Journal 1995, 311: 207-8.

42. Friber TR: Clinical Experience with  binocular indirect ophthalmoscope laser delivery system. Retina 1987, 11:28-35.

43. Whitacre MM, Manoukian N, Mainster MA: Argon indirect ophthalmoscopic photocoagulation: reduced potential phototoxicity with a fixed safety filter. British Journal of Ophthalmology 1990, 74:233-4.

44. Buckley SA, Jenkins L, Benjamin L: Fields DVLC and panretinal photocoagulation. Eye 1992, 6:623-5.

45. The Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group: Photocoagulation treatment of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Ophthalmology 1978, 85: 82-106.

46. Lewis J, Abrams GW, Blumenkranz MS, Campochiaro PV: Resolution of diabetic macular oedema associated with a thickened and taut posterior hyaloid after vitrectomy (abstr). Ophthalmology 1991, 98 (suppl):146.

47. Diabetic Retinopathy Vitrectomy Study Research Group: Early vitrectomy for severe vitreous haemorrhage in diabetic retinopathy. Two year results of a randomized trial. DRVS report No 2 Archives of Ophthalmology 1985, 103:1644-52.

48. Diabetic Retinpathy Vitrectomy sTudy Research Group: eArly vitrectomy for severe vitreous haemorrhage in diabetic retinopathy. Four year results of a randomized trial. DRVS report No 5. Archives of Ophthalmology 1990, 108:958-64.

49. Thompson JR, de Buistros S, Glaser BM, Michels RG: Results of vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Ophthalmology 1986, 93: 1571-4.

50. Gabel V-P, Birngruber R, Gunther-Koszka H, Puliafito CA: Nd: YAG laser photodisruption of haemorrhagic detachment of the internal limiting membrane. American Journal of Ophthalmology 1989, 107:33-7.

51. Raymond LA: Nd:YAG laser treatment for haemorrhages under the internal limiting membrane and posterior hyaloidal face in the macula. Ophthalmology 1995, 102:406-11.

52. Thompson JT, de Buistros S, Michels RG, Rice TA: Results and prognostic factors diabetic traction retinal detachment of the macula. Achieves of ophthalmology 1987, 105:497-502.

53. Rice TA, Michels RG, Rice EF: Vitrectomy for diabetic traction retinal detachment involving the macula. America Journal of Ophthalmology 1983, 95:22-3.

54. Diabetic Retinopathy Vitrectomy Study Research group: Early vitrectomy for severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy in eyes with useful vision: results of a randomized trial. Diabetic Vitrectomy Study Report 3. Ophthalmology 1988, 95: 1307-20.

55. Lewis H, Abrams GW, Williams GA: Anterior hyaloidal fibrovascular proliferation after diabetic vitrectomy. American Journal of Ophthalmology 1987, 104:607-13.

56. Ulbig M, Hamilton AM: Anterior hyaloidal proliferation. Current Opinion in Ophthalmology 1994, 5:54-8.

57. Benson WE, Brown GC, Tasman W, McNamara JA, Vander JF: Extracapsular cataract extraction with placement of a posterior chamber lens in patients with diabetic retinopathy. Ophthalmology 1993, 100:730-8.

58. Hykin PG, Gregson RMC, Sevens JD, Hamilton AMP: Extracapsular cataract extraction in proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Ophthalmology 1993, 100:394-9.

59. Kokame GT, Flynn HW, Blakenship GW: Posterior chamber intra-ocular lens implantation during diabetic pars plana vitrectomy.
Ophthalmology 1989, 96:603-10.

60. Benson WE, Brown GC, Tasman W, McNamara JA: Extracapsular cataract extraction, posterior chamber insertion and pars plana vitrectomy in one operation. Ophthalmology 1990, 97: 819-921.

61. Diabetic Retinopathy Study: Manual of operations. Baltimore 1972.

62. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group: Funds photographic risk factors for the progression of diabetic retinopathy. Report No 12. Ophthalmology 1991, 98: 823-33.

63. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group: Early photocoagulation for diabetic retinopathy. ETDRS report NO . Ophthalmology 1991, 98:766-83.

64. Murdoch JR, Bibby K, Barrie T, Hammer HM, MacCuish AC: Spontaneous regression of pre-proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Practical Diabetes 1993, 10: 110-3. 

65. Murphy R, Egbert PR: Regression of iris neovascularization following panretinal photocoagulation. Archive of Ophthalmology 1979, 97:700-2

66. Wand M, Dueker DK, Aiello LM, Grant WM: Effects of panretinal photocoagulation in rubeosis iridis, angle neovascularization and neovascular glaucoma. American Journal of Ophthalmology 1978, 86:332-9. 

67. Palmer S: Mitomycin as an adjunct chemotherapy with trabeculectomy. Ophthalmology 1991, 98:1693-8..

68. Kitazawa Y, Kawase K, Matsushita H, Minobe M: Trabeculectomy with mitomycin - a comparative study with fluorouracil. Archives of Ophthalmology 1991, 109:1693-8.

69. Barnett AH: Diabetes and hypertension. British Medical Bulletin 1994, 50: 397-407.

70. Lewis JM: The Santa Barbara County Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Feasibility Study. Significance of diabetes duration and systolic blood pressure. Journal of Diabetic Complications 1994, 8:51-4.

71. Kornerup T: Studies in diabetic retinopathy: an investigation of 1000 cases of diabetes. Acta Medica Scandinavica 1955, 153:8-101.

72. Parving HH: Impact of blood pressure and antihypertensive treatment on incipient and overt nephropathy, retinopathy and endothelial permeability in diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 1991, 14: 260-9.

73. Gutman FA: Evaluation of a patient with central retinal vein occlusion. Ophthalmology 1983, 90:481-3.

74. Laatikainen L, Kohner Em, Khoury D, Blach RK: Panretinal photocoagulation in central retinal vein occlusion: a randomized controlled clinical study. British Journal of Ophthalmology 1977, 61: 741-53.

75. Funderburk RL, Feinberg EB: Diabetes as a risk factor for retinal neovascularization. Annals of Ophthalmology 1989, 21:65-9.

76. Henricsson M and Heijl A: The effect of panretinal photocoagulation on visual acuity, visual field and on subjective visual impairment in pre-operative and early proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Acta Ophthalmologica 1994, 72: 570-5.

Epidemiology Clinical features Risk factors Screening
Lasers and lenses. NVD,, NVE.. Maculopathy
Vitrectomy. Cataract Special problems Counselling
References.. AAO guidelines Atlas of Retinopathy Contact lenses
Main index Main page.
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