1. The Philatelic History of Diabetes: In Search of a Cure. Lee J. Sanders
2. The History of Diabetes. John Wiley Publishing. D.A. Pyke
3. Insulin: Discovery and Controversy. Louis Rosenfeld
Clinical Chemistry 48:12:22702288 (2002).

Main development in the history of diabtes
1500 BC
Polyuria, wasting, infection are mentioned in several ancient cultures.
Aretaeus of Cappodocia gave the disease the name diabetes.
Paul Langerhans discovered islet cells in the pancreas. 
Oscar Minkowski discovered pancrease is important in regulation of blood glucose.
Banting and Best isolated a pancreatic extract that lowers blood glucose in pancreatectomized dogs. 
Janbon discovered the hypoglycaemic effect of oral sulphonylurea.
DNA technology allows development of genetically engineered "human" insulin. 
Blood glucose self- management gives patients greater control and flexibility in managing diabetes. 
21st Century
Research continues for cures  to both type I and type II diabetes including the possibilities of islet cell transplant.
Section 13 References

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2. National Society to Prevent Blindness: Vision problems in the US: Facts and figures. The American Academy of Ophthalmology Preferred Practice Patterns Series: Diabetic Retinopathy 1993, 19-20

3. Ghafour IM, Allan D, Foulds WS: Common causes of blindness and visual handicap in the West of Scotland. British Journal of Ophthalmology 1982, 67:209-13

4. Klein R, Klein BEK, Moss SE: The Wisconsin epidemiologic study: II Prevalence and risk of diabetic retinopathy when age at diagnosis is less than thirty years. Archeives of Ophthalmology 1984, 102:520-6.

5. Klein R, Klein BEK, Moss SE: The Wisconsin epidemiologic study: II Prevalence and risk of diabetic retinopathy when age at diagnosis is thirty or more years. Archives of Ophthalmology 1984, 102:527-33.

6. Kohener EM, Stratton IM, Aldinton SJ: Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy at diagnosis of NIDDM in the UKPDS. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 1993, 34:713 (Abstract).

7. Scobie IN, MacCuish AC, Barrie T: Serious retinopathy in a diabetic clinic. Lancet 1981, 2:520-1

8. Foulds WS, MacCuish AC, Barrie T: The cost effectiveness of screening for diabetic retinopathy. Seminars in Ophthalmology 1987, 2:45-50.

9. Klein R, Klein BEK, Moss ME: Visual impairment in diabetes. Ophthalmology 1984, 91:1-9.

10. Klein R, Klein BE, Moss SE, Cruickshanks KJ: The Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy: the long term incidence of macular oedema. Ophthalmology 1995, 102: 7-16.

11. Buxton MJ, Sculphur MJ, Ferguson BA: Screening for treatable diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic Medicine 1991, 8:371-7

12, Foulds WS, MacCuish A, Barrie T, Green FD, Scobie IN, Ghafour IM et al. Diabetic retinopathy in the West of Scotland: its detection and prevalence, and the cost-effectivness of a proposed screening programme. Health Bulletin (Edin) 1983, 41:318-26.

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14. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group: Photocoagulation for diabetic macular oedema. Archives of Ophthalmology 1985, 103:1796-806.

15. Weinberger D, Fink-Cohen S, Gaton DD, Priel E, Yassur Y: Non-retineosvascular leakage in diabetic retinopathy. British Journal of Ophthalmology 1995, 79:728-31

16. Rand LI, Krolewski AS, Aiello LM: Multiple factors in the prediction of risk of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. New England Journal of Medicine 1985, 313:1433-7

17. Klein R, Moss SE, Klein BEK, Davis MA, deMets DL: The Wisconsin epidemiologic study of diabetic retinopathy. XI. The incidence of macular oedema. Ophthalmology 1989, 96:1501-10.

18. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group: The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. New England Journal of Medicine 1993, 329: 977-86.

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20. Knowles WC, Bennet PH, Ballatine EJ: Increased incidence of retinopathy in diabetics with elevated blood pressure. New England Journal of Medicine 1980, 302: 645-50.

21. Klein R, Klein BEK, Moss SE, Davis MD, de Mets DL: Is blood pressure a predictor of the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy? Archives of Internal Medicine 1989, 149:2427-32.

22. Moloney JBM, Drury MI: The effect of pregnancy on the natural course of diabetic retinopathy. American Journal of Ophthalmology 1982, 93:745-56.

23. Klein BEK, Moss SE, Klein R: Effect of pregnancy on progression of diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes CAre 1990, 13:34-40.

24. Phelps RL, Sakol P, Metzger JA et al: Changes in retinopathy during pregnancy: correlation with regulation of hyperglycemia. Archives of ophthalmology 1986, 104: 1806-10.

25. Klein BEK, Moss sE, Klein R, Surawics TS: Serum cholesterol in the Wisconsin epidemiologic study of diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes Care 1992, 15:282-7.

26. Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research group: Preliminary report on the effects of photocoagulation therapy. American Journal of Ophthalmology 1976, 81:383-96.

27. British Multicentre Study Group: Photocoagulation for proliferative diabetic retinopathy: a randomized controlled trial using the xenon arc. Diabetologia 1984, 26: 109-15.

28. British Multicentre Study Group: Photocoagulation for diabetic maculopathy. Diabetes 1983, 32:1010-6

29. Wilson JMG, Junger G: The principles and practice of screening for disease. Public Health Papers: wHO 1968, 34-8.

30. Javitt JC, Canner JK, Sommer A: Cost effective ness of current approaches to the control of retinopathy in Type 1 diabetes. Ophthalmology 1989, 96:255-64.

31. Dasbach EJ, Fryback DG, Newcomb PA, Klein R, Klein RE: Cost effectiveness of strategies for detecting diabetic retinopathy. Medical care 1991, 29:20-39.

32. Rohan TE, Frost CD, Wald NJ: Prevention of blindness by screening for diabetic retinopathy: a quantitative assessment. British Medical Journal 1989, 299: 1198-201.

33. MacCuish AC: Early detection and screening of diabetic retinopathy. Eye 1993, 7: 254-9.

34. Patel V, Rassam SMB, Kohner EM: Screening for diabetic retinopathy in general practice: feasibility and limitations. Diabetic Medicine 1992, 8:371-7.

35. Barrie T, MacCuish AC: Assessment of non-mydriatic fundus photography in detection of diabetic retinopathy. British Medical Journal 1986, 293: 1304-5.

36. Hammond GJ, Shackleton J, Flanagan DW, Heritage J, Wade J: Comparison between an ophthalmic optician and an ophthalmologist in screening for diabetic retinopathy. Eye 1996, 10:107-12.

37. Burns-Cox CJ, Dear Hart JC: Screening of diabetics for retinopathy by ophthalmic opticians. British Medical Journal 1985, 290:1052-4.

38. Taylor R, Lovelock, Turnbridge WMG et al: Comparison of non-mydriatic retinal photography with ophthalmoscopy in 2159 patients, mobile retina camera study. British Medical Journal 1990, 310:1243-7.

39. Leese G, Ahmed S, Newton RW et al: Use of mobile screening unit for diabetic retinopathy in rural and urban areas. British Medical Journal 1993, 306: 187-9.

40. Retinopathy Working Party: A protocol for screening for diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic Medicine 1991, 8:233-7.

41. Ryder B: Screening for diabetic retinopathy. British Medical Journal 1995, 311: 207-8.

42. Friber TR: Clinical Experience with  binocular indirect ophthalmoscope laser delivery system. Retina 1987, 11:28-35.

43. Whitacre MM, Manoukian N, Mainster MA: Argon indirect ophthalmoscopic photocoagulation: reduced potential phototoxicity with a fixed safety filter. British Journal of Ophthalmology 1990, 74:233-4.

44. Buckley SA, Jenkins L, Benjamin L: Fields DVLC and panretinal photocoagulation. Eye 1992, 6:623-5.

45. The Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group: Photocoagulation treatment of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Ophthalmology 1978, 85: 82-106.

46. Lewis J, Abrams GW, Blumenkranz MS, Campochiaro PV: Resolution of diabetic macular oedema associated with a thickened and taut posterior hyaloid after vitrectomy (abstr). Ophthalmology 1991, 98 (suppl):146.

47. Diabetic Retinopathy Vitrectomy Study Research Group: Early vitrectomy for severe vitreous haemorrhage in diabetic retinopathy. Two year results of a randomized trial. DRVS report No 2 Archives of Ophthalmology 1985, 103:1644-52.

48. Diabetic Retinpathy Vitrectomy sTudy Research Group: eArly vitrectomy for severe vitreous haemorrhage in diabetic retinopathy. Four year results of a randomized trial. DRVS report No 5. Archives of Ophthalmology 1990, 108:958-64.

49. Thompson JR, de Buistros S, Glaser BM, Michels RG: Results of vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Ophthalmology 1986, 93: 1571-4.

50. Gabel V-P, Birngruber R, Gunther-Koszka H, Puliafito CA: Nd: YAG laser photodisruption of haemorrhagic detachment of the internal limiting membrane. American Journal of Ophthalmology 1989, 107:33-7.

51. Raymond LA: Nd:YAG laser treatment for haemorrhages under the internal limiting membrane and posterior hyaloidal face in the macula. Ophthalmology 1995, 102:406-11.

52. Thompson JT, de Buistros S, Michels RG, Rice TA: Results and prognostic factors diabetic traction retinal detachment of the macula. Achieves of ophthalmology 1987, 105:497-502.

53. Rice TA, Michels RG, Rice EF: Vitrectomy for diabetic traction retinal detachment involving the macula. America Journal of Ophthalmology 1983, 95:22-3.

54. Diabetic Retinopathy Vitrectomy Study Research group: Early vitrectomy for severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy in eyes with useful vision: results of a randomized trial. Diabetic Vitrectomy Study Report 3. Ophthalmology 1988, 95: 1307-20.

55. Lewis H, Abrams GW, Williams GA: Anterior hyaloidal fibrovascular proliferation after diabetic vitrectomy. American Journal of Ophthalmology 1987, 104:607-13.

56. Ulbig M, Hamilton AM: Anterior hyaloidal proliferation. Current Opinion in Ophthalmology 1994, 5:54-8.

57. Benson WE, Brown GC, Tasman W, McNamara JA, Vander JF: Extracapsular cataract extraction with placement of a posterior chamber lens in patients with diabetic retinopathy. Ophthalmology 1993, 100:730-8.

58. Hykin PG, Gregson RMC, Sevens JD, Hamilton AMP: Extracapsular cataract extraction in proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Ophthalmology 1993, 100:394-9.

59. Kokame GT, Flynn HW, Blakenship GW: Posterior chamber intra-ocular lens implantation during diabetic pars plana vitrectomy.
Ophthalmology 1989, 96:603-10.

60. Benson WE, Brown GC, Tasman W, McNamara JA: Extracapsular cataract extraction, posterior chamber insertion and pars plana vitrectomy in one operation. Ophthalmology 1990, 97: 819-921.

61. Diabetic Retinopathy Study: Manual of operations. Baltimore 1972.

62. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group: Funds photographic risk factors for the progression of diabetic retinopathy. Report No 12. Ophthalmology 1991, 98: 823-33.

63. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group: Early photocoagulation for diabetic retinopathy. ETDRS report NO . Ophthalmology 1991, 98:766-83.

64. Murdoch JR, Bibby K, Barrie T, Hammer HM, MacCuish AC: Spontaneous regression of pre-proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Practical Diabetes 1993, 10: 110-3. 

65. Murphy R, Egbert PR: Regression of iris neovascularization following panretinal photocoagulation. Archive of Ophthalmology 1979, 97:700-2

66. Wand M, Dueker DK, Aiello LM, Grant WM: Effects of panretinal photocoagulation in rubeosis iridis, angle neovascularization and neovascular glaucoma. American Journal of Ophthalmology 1978, 86:332-9. 

67. Palmer S: Mitomycin as an adjunct chemotherapy with trabeculectomy. Ophthalmology 1991, 98:1693-8..

68. Kitazawa Y, Kawase K, Matsushita H, Minobe M: Trabeculectomy with mitomycin - a comparative study with fluorouracil. Archives of Ophthalmology 1991, 109:1693-8.

69. Barnett AH: Diabetes and hypertension. British Medical Bulletin 1994, 50: 397-407.

70. Lewis JM: The Santa Barbara County Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Feasibility Study. Significance of diabetes duration and systolic blood pressure. Journal of Diabetic Complications 1994, 8:51-4.

71. Kornerup T: Studies in diabetic retinopathy: an investigation of 1000 cases of diabetes. Acta Medica Scandinavica 1955, 153:8-101.

72. Parving HH: Impact of blood pressure and antihypertensive treatment on incipient and overt nephropathy, retinopathy and endothelial permeability in diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 1991, 14: 260-9.

73. Gutman FA: Evaluation of a patient with central retinal vein occlusion. Ophthalmology 1983, 90:481-3.

74. Laatikainen L, Kohner Em, Khoury D, Blach RK: Panretinal photocoagulation in central retinal vein occlusion: a randomized controlled clinical study. British Journal of Ophthalmology 1977, 61: 741-53.

75. Funderburk RL, Feinberg EB: Diabetes as a risk factor for retinal neovascularization. Annals of Ophthalmology 1989, 21:65-9.

76. Henricsson M and Heijl A: The effect of panretinal photocoagulation on visual acuity, visual field and on subjective visual impairment in pre-operative and early proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Acta Ophthalmologica 1994, 72: 570-5.

Epidemiology Clinical features Risk factors Screening
Lasers and lenses. NVD,, NVE.. Maculopathy
Vitrectomy. Cataract Special problems Counselling
References.. AAO guidelines Atlas of Retinopathy Contact lenses
Main index Main page.