Greek Ophthalmology
Greece (1948) Statues of Hippocrates

Although regarded as the Father of Medicine, Hippocrates adhered to the traditional theories whereby disease 
was interpreted in terms of a derangement of one or the four of the humours without localization to a specific 
organ. This concepts were to persist for many centuries to come until the Renaissance.
In the Hippocratic system all the humours could deflect themselves to the eyes. In acute infection these were 
drawn away by irritants applied to the neighbouring region, cupping and vensection and even cauterization with 
a red hot iron over the temple or scalp or deep incisions. Such was the ordeal suffered by St. Francis of Assisi
when he presented himself for treatment of his trachoma.  Local application were not employed since they 
increased the 'fluxious of the humours'. For chronic affections, however, local treatment was used either
for soothing purposes, as milk or the gall of goats, preparations of lead or myrrh or prescriptions o fa more 
irritating nature, as copper peroxide or massage of the inner surface of the lids with wool (in trachoma) until the 
blood ceased to flow. 

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