Short Answer Questions 2003
January, 2003

1. List factors that are thought to be important stimulators and inhibitors of 
    angiogenesis in the eye 

2. Draw an annotated diagram to show the blood supply of the anterior part of the eye.

3. What structural chromosomal abnormalities may occur and give three examples of 
     how these may affect the eye. 

4. List the roles of glutamate in synaptic transmission between photoreceptor and
    bipolar cells. What is meant by neuroprotection?

5. List six clinical or pathological features of giant cell arteritis.

6. List ways by which organisms acquire antibiotic resistance.

7. Draw an annotated diagram describing the topographical anatomy of the
    orbital apex. 

8. What are interferons? List their role in the immune response against viruses. 

9. Write short notes on : a. Crystallins and b. Elastin. 

10. List how hydration of the cornea contributes to transparency. 

11. List six important complications of HIV infection.

12. What are the association areas of the visual cortex? List how they are involved 
       in visual perception. 

April, 2003

1. What is a protein kinase? List how it may be involved in the regulation of protein 

2. Write short notes on 
     a) secondary visual association areas and 
     b) frontal eye fields

3. Write short notes on melanin synthesis, list two conditions in which defects of 
     melanin synthesis occur.

4. Describe with the aid of diagrams the topographical and microscopic anatomy of 
    Bruchs membrane.

5) List the evidence that inflammation is important in the development of atheroma.

6. List mechanisms by which the cornea is protected from infection.

7. Draw an annotated diagram of the vascular supply to the optic nerve and nerve head.

8. What is TGF-b? List how it is involved in wound healing.

9.  List the composition and function of the interphotoreceptor matrix.

10. Draw a diagram to describe the secretion of aqueous humour.

11. Draw a diagram of a gram-postive organism and indicate the site of action of 

12. Describe with diagram the anatomy of the vitreoretinal interface. List what 
      molecules may be involved and how posterior vitreous detachment occurs.

Octobcer, 2003

1. Write short notes on atherosclerosis in the carotid artery. 

2. Write short notes on the pseudomonas bacterium. 

3. Give an account of the HLA system. 

4. Describe with the aid of a diagram the cavernous sinus and the anatomical 
    relations within the sinus. 

5. Describe the anatomy and histology of the corneal limbus and relate this to 
    its functions. 

6. Write short notes on retinal neuroglia. 

7. Describe the mechanisms of control of horizontal eye movements. 

8. Write short notes on the visual evoked potential. 

9. Write short notes on mitochondrial inheritance and briefly describe one ocular 
     disease in which mitochondrial DNA is mutated. 

10. Write short notes on:

a) growth factors 
b) tumour suppressor genes 
c) apoptosis. 

11. What are the common adverse systemic effects of topically applied ocular 

12. Write short notes on immunological tolerance.

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