5. List six clinical or pathological features of giant cell arteritis. 
Clinical features (choose any six below) of giant cell arteritis include:
  • Temporal headache due to temporal artery ischaemia
  • Decreased vision due to either arteritic ischaemic optic neuropathy (most common), retinal artery , vein occlusion or choroidal ischaemia (less common)
  • Jaw claudication
  • Tongue claudication
  • Weight loss or anorexia
  • Malaise, fatigue or weakness
  • Fever
  • Polymyalgia rheumatica

  • or 

    Pathological features:

  • Raised ESR
  • Raised CRP

  • Abnormal histological features of the temporal artery which include:
  • fragmentation of the internal elastic lamina
  • granulomatous inflammation of the vessel wall
  • nodular necrosis of the media
  • full-thickness scarring of the vessel wall in “burnt out” cases
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