Videos on Clinical Examination: I
In this section, common examination techniques are shown as short films using the window media player. The film clips are soundless. Please use broadband connection for quick downloading. Any comments please e-mail to chuaoxford@hotmail.com
Ocular motility examinations and abnormalities
Nystagmus examination   File size: 1.5MB
This video shows the basic technique for examining a patient with nystagmus. The patient has bilateral pendular nystagmus due to congenital macular scars possibly caused by toxoplasmosis.

Ocular movement (basic examination)   File size: 2.8MB
Unless told otherwise begin with a cover and alternate cover test for near and distant fixation. Examine the eye in the nine cardinal positions of gaze. Do not forget to perform horizontal and vertical saccades.
Special thanks to Miss D. Louis FRACO for the demonstration.

Prism cover test (right esotropia)   File size: 3.4MB
This is a common request in part II OSE. Before carrying out the test, perform the cover/uncover test and alternate test to ascertain if the patient has eso- or exo- tropia or phoria. The prism cover test is carried out with the apex pointing in the direction of the tropia or phoria. Performed the prism cover tests for near (using a fixation target) and distant. The end point of the test occurs when there is no eye movement on alternate cover test. This patient has a right esotropia.

Abnormal cover/uncover tests   File size: 3.4MB
Three patients with abnormal cover/uncover tests. First patient had had surgery for infantile esotropia which recurs. The second patient has consecutive exotropia following surgery for esotropia; cover test shows latent nystagmus. The third patient has a left sixth nerve palsy, however; cover/uncover test in the primary shows a right esotropia because the patient is fixating with her left eye.

Fourth nerve palsy   File size: 3.3MB
Fourth nerve palsy may present as cover/uncover test or ocular motility examination. The patient in this video has a right fourth nerve palsy and had had previous right eye surgery. In the primary position, the eyes are orthophoric but not so on lateral gaze and head tilt.

Aberrant third nerve regeneration   File size: 1.7MB
This patient who had had a left third nerve palsy following road traffic accident develops aberrant regeneration resulting in eyelid elevation during downgaze and adduction.

Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia   File size: 2.7MB
Two patients with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia showing bilateral ptosis and symmetrial ophthalmoplegia.

Facial nerve examination and abnormalities
Facial nerve examination & abnormalities   File size: 2.6MB
A common clinical examination. Look for synkinesis and any external signs on the ear and the parotid regions to gain extra points. Two cases of abnormal facial nerve functions are also shown.
Special thanks to Mr. G. Clare MRCOphth and Miss S. Hornby FRCOphth for the demonstration.
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