Paediatric ophthalmology
Spain (1997)
Down's syndrome was named after John Langdon Down (1828-1896). He was the medical superintendent fo the Royal Earlswood
Asylum for Idiots in Surrey. He used the term Mongolism to describe a group of mentally subnormal patients with typical facies
and believed that these children were born to parents with tuberculosis. Most cases of Down's syndrome are now known to be
caused by trisomy 21. The ocular manifestations include Brushfield spots (85% of light-eyed patients), iris stromal atrophy, 
refractive errors (high myopia), cataract, strabismus (usually esotropia), upward slant of palpebral fissures, epicanthus arising 
from orbital part of upper lid, keratoconus with hydrops, increased number of retinal vessels crossing disc margin, blepharitis,
nystagmus and nasolacrimal duct obstruction
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