Lid speculum
(An ideal speculum is one which can allow surgeon to gain access to the eye with minimal pressure on the globe. Several designs are available.)

Frankel paediatric speculum

Sauer paediatric speculum
These speculae are designed for opening infant's eye during indirect 
ophthalmoloscopy and cataract extraction. Frankel speculum allows 
adjustment of the width of the palpebral fissure.

Barraquer wire speculum
Speculum can be divided into the rigid and the wire speculum. Barraquer is probably 
the most widely used speculum for cataract extraction especially during phacoemulsification
Its main disadvantage when compared with the rigid speculum is that it cannot be used to adjust the width of the palpebral fissure.

Pierce speculum
Pierce speculum combine the features of wire and rigid speculum. It allows adjustment of 
the interpalpebral distance.

Williams eye speculum
This is a rigid speculum and allows the width of the palpebral fissure to be adjusted. It is used
commonlyin strabismus or enucleation surgery where a wide palpebral fissure is desirable. However, one main disadvantage of a widely open eye is that the lateral canthus may push on the eye leading to an increase in the intraocular pressure. Therefore, excessive widening of the palpebral fissure should be avoided in patients with penetrating injury.

Lang speculum
Lang speculum is a rigid speculum. In addition, it has guards which help to keep the 
eyelashes out of the operative fields. However, this function has now been superseded 
by the wide spread use of plastic drape which is excellent in keeping the lashes out of 
the way. One disadvantage of Lang's speculum is that it can slip out of the eyes if the lids 
are floppy as during evisceration or enucleation of a pthisical eye.

More surgical instruments