Posterior Segments
............... The posterior segments cover all the structures behind the lens. However, the most likely abnormalities are likely to be in the retina. The techniques that you need to master are indirect ophthalmoscopy with slit-lamp (90D, 78D & 60D), indirect ophthalmoscopy with 20 D and direct ophthalmoscopy. 

Before focusing your attention on the retina, look at the vitreous for any subtle abnormalities such as posterior vitreous detachment or operculum. Opacities such as asteroid hyalosis or synchysis scintillans (you are likely to be asked the differences between the two if any one of these were present) should be very obvious but like examination of the anterior segment do not forget to look for a second pathology which usually resides in the retina. 

        • asteroid hyalosis
        • synchysis scintillans
        • posterior vitreous detachment
        • operculum
In the retina, the abnormality/ies can usually be detected if you follow a logical order beginning with the optic disc, blood vessels, macula and the peripheral retina in that order. If no abnormalities were found then repeat the steps. 
                            Optic disc
        • posterior persistent hyperplastic vitreous
        • Bergeismeter's papillae
        • high myopia
        • morning glory syndrome
        • myelinated optic disc
        • optic atrophy
        • optic disc drusen
        • pseudo-papilloedema
        • papilloedema
        • optic disc coloboma
        • optic nerve hypoplasia
        • optic disc collaterals
        • tilted disc
        • astrocystic hamartoma
        • age-related macular degeneration
        • Best's disease
        • cellophane maculopathy
        • choroidal foldings
        • diabetic retinopathy
        • Stargardt's disease
        • macular hole
          Retinal vascular disorders
        • pre-proliferative diabetic retinopathy
        • proliferative diabetic retinopathy
        • advanced diabetic retinopathy
        • branch retinal artery occlusion
        • branch retinal vein occlusion
        • central retinal vein occlusion
        • hypertensive retinopathy
        • retinal vasculitis
        • retinitis pigmentosa
        • angioid streaks
        • choroidal melanoma
        • congenital retinal pigment epithelium hypertrophy
        • retinal detachment
        • retinoschisis
        • toxoplasmosis
        • blunt trauma
        • cytomegalovirus retinitis
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