Orbital cases
..................... The most common orbital case and indeed in the fellowship examination is
thyroid eye disease. Learn to use Hertel's exophthalmometer well without 
making it look threatening to the patient ie. make sure the edges of the meter 
are wide apart as you rest them on the orbital rims. Also remember to check 
if the proptosis is axial or non-axial. Non-axial proptosis may imply space 
occupying lesion outside the muscle cone.Apart from measuring the amount 
of proptosis, do not forget to test the ocular motility and the optic nerve function. 
          Most common case by miles
        • thyroid eye disease
          Uncommon cases
        • carotico-cavernous fistula
        • cavernous haemangioma
        • Courzon's disease

        • post-enucleation syndrome
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