IX Ocular motility, strabismus, amblyopia and diplopia
Essential topics/experience:
To have become familiar with the following:

i. Concomitant strabismus: screening strategies; epicanthus; accommodative aspects;
interpretation of orthoptic report; indications for surgery.

ii. Amblyopia: anisometropic, stimulus-deprivation, strabismic; prevention and treatment using occlusion.

iii. Incomitant strabismus: cranial nerve palsies including diabetic mononeuropathies; significance of painful third nerve palsy and of pupil sparing; prediction of post-operative diplopia.

iv. Liaison: with neurologists, orthoptists.

Practical skills:
To have undertaken (under supervision until proficient) the following:

i. Eye movement evaluation.

ii. Cover test (including alternate and prism).

iii. Stereo tests.

iv. Cycloplegic refraction.

v. Horizontal muscle surgery.

Background theory/principles:
To have gained an awareness of the following:

i. Nystagmus.

ii. Ocular motility syndromes (Duane’s, Brown’s).

iii. Use of botulinum toxin.

iv. Ocular myopathies and the neuromuscular junction.

v. Supranuclear eye movement disorders.

vi. Fresnel prisms.

vii. Oblique muscle, vertical muscle and adjustable suture surgery.

viii. Electromyography.

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