X Disorders of the eye and visual system affecting children
Essential topics/experience:
To have become familiar with the following:

i. The approach: to infants, children and their parents.

ii. Ophthalmia neonatorum: diagnosis and management.

iii. Congenital nasolacrimal obstruction: recognition and management.

iv. Ametropia in children: significance and treatment.

v. The apparently blind infant: normal and delayed visual maturation.

vi. Liaison: with paediatricians, geneticists.

Practical skills:
To have undertaken (under supervision until proficient) the following:

i. Assessment of vision in children: fixation, preferential looking, single and linear optotype

ii. Cycloplegic refraction and prescribing for children.

iii. Fundoscopy in children.

Background theory/principles:
To have gained an awareness of the following:

i. Congenital nystagmus.

ii. Ocular albinism.

iii. Congenital glaucoma: diagnosis and management.

iv. Congenital cataract: diagnosis and management including prevention of amblyopia.

v. Leucocoria: differential diagnosis including retinoblastoma.

vi. Retinopathy of prematurity: screening and treatment.

vii. Genetic and developmental disorders: Leberís amaurosis, X-linked schisis, Coatsí disease.

viii. Paediatric neurological diseases.

ix. Presentation of raised intracranial pressure in infancy and childhood.

x. Ophthalmic signs of child abuse.

xi. Orbital cellulitis presenting in children.

xii. Orbital tumours in children, including rhabdomyosarcoma.

xiii. Services for and rehabilitation of the visually disabled child.

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