I Accident and emergency ophthalmology
Essential topics/experience:
To have become familiar with the following:

i. Superficial ocular trauma: including assessment and treatment of foreign bodies, abrasions and minor lid lacerations.

ii. Severe blunt ocular injury: management of hyphaema; recognition and initial management of more severe injury.

iii. Severe orbital injury: recognition and initial management of blow-out fracture, optic nerve compression.

iv. Penetrating ocular injury: recognition and initial care of corneal and scleral wounds; recognition of aqueous leakage and tissue prolapse.

v. Retained intraocular foreign body: anticipation from history; confirmation by X-Ray and CT scan.

vi. Sudden painless loss of vision: recognition of retinal arterial occlusion, central retinal vein occlusion, acute ischaemic optic neuropathy, optic neuritis; urgency of treatment.

vii. Severe intraocular infection: recognition and initial investigation and management of hypopyon.

viii. Acute angle closure glaucoma: recognition and acute reduction of intraocular pressure.

ix. Liaison: with radiological department, microbiologists, ENT, faciomaxillary surgeons.

Practical skills:
To have undertaken (under supervision until proficient) the following:

i. Removal of superficial foreign bodies.

ii. Corneal epithelial debridement.

iii. Repair of minor conjunctival/lid lacerations.

iv. YAG iridotomy.

Background theory/principles:
To have gained an awareness of the following:

i. Eye protection and prevention of injury.

ii. Lateral canthotomy and inferior cantholysis for retrobulbar haemorrhage.

iii. Chemical/alkali burns of the conjunctiva and cornea.

iv. Drug penetration into the eye and vitreous.

v. Use of intravitreal antibiotics, including dosage and potential complications.

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