To have become familiar with the following:
i. Swollen optic disc: differential
diagnosis, recognition and evaluation of papilloedema,
ii. The atrophic optic disc: recognition
and differential diagnosis; clinical evaluation of optic
iii. Visual pathway disorders: identification
of site and nature of lesion from history,
iv. Liaison: with neurologists, neurosurgeons, endocrinologists and vascular surgeons.
i. Goldmann visual fields.
ii. Examination of the cranial nerves.
iii. Temporal artery biopsy.
i. Benign intracranial hypertension.
ii. Compressive optic neuropathy.
iii. Optic nerve glioma.
iv. Chiasmal lesions.
v. Visual evoked responses.
vi. Neuro-imaging including CT, MRI and carotid doppler.
vii. Carotid endarterectomy.
viii. Multiple sclerosis and its ophthalmic manifestations.
ix. Higher cortical dysfunction, including the visual agnosias.