To have become familiar with the following:
i. Diabetic retinopathy: classification, screening strategies, management.
ii. Hypertensive and arteriosclerotic
retinopathy: including macroaneurysms and branch
iii. Retinal vascular occlusions: recognition of ischaemic and exudative responses; rubeosis.
iv. Macular diseases: including recognition of age-related maculopathy, subretinal neovascularisation, cystoid macular odema, macular hole; related symptomatology and urgency of treatment.
v. Fluorescein angiography: indications, complications and interpretation.
vi. Liaison: with diabetologists, vascular surgeons, low vision services.
i. Assessment of macular function (Amsler Chart, Watske Allen slit beam test).
ii. Scatter laser photocoagulation of the peripheral retina .
i. Fundus imaging including scanning laser ophthalmoscopy.
ii. Indocyanine green angiography.
iii. Electrodiagnostic tests and dark adaptation.
iv. Genetic retinal disease: retinal dystrophies, retinoblastoma.
v. Differential diagnosis and treatment of malignant melanoma.
vi. Macular laser photocoagulation: principles and laser safety.
vii. Toxic maculopathy and central serous retinopathy.
viii. Intraocular lymphoma.
ix. Intermediate and posterior uveitis: toxoplasmosis, toxocara and sympathetic ophthalmia; retinal vasculitis.
x. Coats’ disease, other telangiectasis and the retinal phakomatoses.
xi. AIDS-related opportunistic infections and anti-AIDS treatment.
xii. Low vision aids, including optical principles and fitting.