VII Medical retinal and choroidal disorders
Essential topics/experience:
To have become familiar with the following:

i. Diabetic retinopathy: classification, screening strategies, management.

ii. Hypertensive and arteriosclerotic retinopathy: including macroaneurysms and branch
retinal vein occlusion.

iii. Retinal vascular occlusions: recognition of ischaemic and exudative responses; rubeosis.

iv. Macular diseases: including recognition of age-related maculopathy, subretinal neovascularisation, cystoid macular odema, macular hole; related symptomatology and urgency of treatment.

v. Fluorescein angiography: indications, complications and interpretation.

vi. Liaison: with diabetologists, vascular surgeons, low vision services.

Practical skills:
To have undertaken (under supervision until proficient) the following:

i. Assessment of macular function (Amsler Chart, Watske Allen slit beam test).

ii. Scatter laser photocoagulation of the peripheral retina [20].

Background theory/principles:
To have gained awareness of the following:

i. Fundus imaging including scanning laser ophthalmoscopy.

ii. Indocyanine green angiography.

iii. Electrodiagnostic tests and dark adaptation.

iv. Genetic retinal disease: retinal dystrophies, retinoblastoma.

v. Differential diagnosis and treatment of malignant melanoma.

vi. Macular laser photocoagulation: principles and laser safety.

vii. Toxic maculopathy and central serous retinopathy.

viii. Intraocular lymphoma.

ix. Intermediate and posterior uveitis: toxoplasmosis, toxocara and sympathetic ophthalmia; retinal vasculitis.

x. Coats’ disease, other telangiectasis and the retinal phakomatoses.

xi. AIDS-related opportunistic infections and anti-AIDS treatment.

xii. Low vision aids, including optical principles and fitting.

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