Central retinal vein occlusion

There are retinal haemorrhages (dot and blot haemorrhages and flame haemorrhages) in all quadrants. 
The veins are tortuous and engorged. There may be multiple cotton-wool spots. The optic disc may 
be swollen in the acute stage. In chronic cases, the signs are less florid and do not omit to look for disc 
collaterals, macular oedema and peripheral neovascularization. (Note: in chronic cases, the signs may be 
similar to diabetic retinopathy.)

Also look for:

  • other signs of ischaemia (relative afferent pupillary defect if both pupils were not dilated) 

  • and rubeosis iridis
  • possible causes (for example increased cup disc ratio in glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy 

  • and hypertensive changes in the contralateral eye)


1. What are the risk factors for central retinal vein occlusion?

2. What are the risk factors for neovascularization in central retinal vein occlusion?

3. What is the benefit of grid laser in macular oedema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion?


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