|Betel nut (Areca catechu).
Betal nut is indigenous to the Malay
Peninsula. The Malayan state of Penang is named after
(Pinang in Malay). The betel nut contains a stimulant,
an alkaloid which affects the nervous system similar
to the action
of acetylcholine. The arecoline effect is highly complex
includes constriction of the pupil, decreased heart output,
stimulation of various glands, and vasodilation. The
described by some as similar to nicotine and to other
"way too much coffee." Topical arecoline causes a considerable
smarting of the eye and induces a strong miosis like
The miosis occurs within 5 minutes reaching its maximum
minutes and the pupil returns to normal in 90 minutes.
intraocular pressure drops due to increased aqueous outflow
through the trabecular meshwork.