|Anatomist in Paris; born 1790 died 1883.
Cloquet's canal = A vestige of the embryonal A. hyolidea.
Jules Germain Cloquet was the younger brother of Hippolyte Cloquet (1787-1840).
He initially worked as an apprentice in the workshop of his father who
was a draughtsman, and later as modeller of anatomical figures in the faculty
of Paris. He first studied the natural sciences in Rouen, but came to Paris
in 1810 to devote himself to medicine. Already the following year he was
preparator of anatomy at the medical school, becoming prosector at the
faculty in 1815. In 1817 he was conferred doctor of medicine with a dissertation
on abdominal hernias, of which he had sectioned some 300. Hernias remained
an important element of his research. The same year he was awarded a prize
from the Académie des sciences for a treatise that was not published
until six years later.
In 1819 Cloquet competed successfully for a position as Chirurgien en
chef adjoint at the Hôpital St. Louis. Besides his work on hernias,
he is also credited with the first description of the central canal of
the vitreous (the hyaloid canal). In 1821 he was elected one of the first
members of the Academy of Medicine.
In 1824, through concours, he was appointed professor agrégé
of surgery. In 1831, once more through concours, he was appointed professor
of surgical pathology at the Medical Faculty of Paris, in 1834 also of
clinical surgery. He had to resign from all practical activities in 1841-1842,
as his health condition no longer permitted him to continue. However, in
1844 he was a member of the exhibition jury, and in 1851 was appointed
chirurgien consultant to the emperor. In 1855 he became a member of the
Academy of Sciences.
Cloquet commenced the publication of his famous work Anatomie de l'homme
in 1821. The complete work contains some 1300 illustrations, most if them
made by Cloquet himself, and took ten years to publish in extenso.
Cloquet reformed theoretical education through the use pictures and
preparations. His lectures were collected and published by Dominique-Jean
Baron Larrey (1766-1842). Besides a large number of treatises on surgery
and anatomy, Cloquet is credited the invention of several surgical instruments,
among them the artery forceps and a device for the removal of foreign bodies.
De la squeléttopée, ou de la préparation des os,
etc. Paris, 1815.
Recherches anatomiques sur les hernies de l’abdomen.
Doctoral thesis, Paris, Méquignon-Marvis, 1817.
Cloquets's medical thesis, it was followed by his thesis in competition
for head of the anatomy section of the Paris Faculty: Recherches sur les
causes et l'anatomie des hernies abdominales. Paris, Méquignon-Marvis,
1819. The litographic plates in the work of 1819 were drawn by Cloquet
himself, and are among the earliest litographed medical illustrations.
Mémoire sur la membrane pupillaire, et sur la formation du petit
cercle artérial de l’iris. Paris, 1818.
Anatomie des vers intestinaux: Ascaride lombricoïde et echinorhynque
Prize-winning (Académie des sciences) treatise, 1818.
Recherches sur les causes et l’anatomie des hernies abdominale.
Paris, Méquignon-Marvis, 1819.
De la squeléttopée et rechercehs sur les causes et l'anatomie
des hernies abdominales.
Paris 1819. 2nd edition augmentée par Étienne-Rénaud-Augustin
Serres (1787-1868), Bruxelles, 1824, 1836.
These works were written in competition for the anatomy chair at Paris.
The first gives directions for the preparation of a human skeleton from
cadaver to mounted specimen, while the second covers the causes and anatomy
of the abdominal hernia and contains a series of lithographs drawn by the
author. The work is based on Cloquets's experience with more than 500 hernia
De l’influence des efforts sur les organes renfermés dans la
Nouveau Journal de médecine. T. 6. Concours-thesis for Chirurgien
en chef adjoint, Hôpital Saint-Louis, 1819.
Anatomie de l’homme, ou description et figures lithographiées
de toutes les parties de corps humain.
5 volumes. A l'Imprimerie Lithographique de M. Engelmann et Compagnie
- Chez Monsieur Le Comte De Lasteyrie - De l'Imprimerie de A. Belin, Paris,
The first anatomical atlas illustrated by lithography, containing 300
plates in folio format. This was probably the most elaborate of the litographic
incunabula produced by Lasteyrie, one of the pioneer lithographers in France.
The size of volumes and the exorbitant sale price convinced Cloquet
to undertake in 1825 a more handy quarto edition, less luxurious and more
accessible to his fellow-members and to the students in general. This was
Manuel d’anatomie descriptive du corps humain.
1825-1835. English translation by John D. Godman (1794-1830), Boston,
Mémoire sur les calculs urinaires. 1822.
An in curanda oculi suffusione (vulgo cataracte) lentis crystallinae
extractio hujus depressione praestantior? Concours-thesis for agrégé.
Pathologie chirurgicale. Plan et méthode qu’il convient de suivre
dans l’enseignement de cette science. Concours-thesis for the chair
of surgical pathology, 1831. English translation by J. W. Garlick and W.
Copperthwaite, London, 1833.
Mémoire sur les concrétions intestinales (entérolithes,
égagropiles etc). 1855.
Mémoire sur une méthode particulière d’appliquer
la cautérisation aux divisions anormales des certains organes. 1855.