Candidate 8 (FRCS part 1, April 2009)


1.The blood supply to the laminar part of the optic disc is from

a. Central retinal artery

b. short posterior arteries

c. long posterior arteries

d. internal carotid artery


2.Regarding rod photoreceptors

a. subserves scoptoptic vision

b. more in the periphery than centrally

c. less than cones


3.Cephalosporins work by

a. inhibiting cell wall synthesis

b. inhibits ribosomal synthesis

c. inhibits DNA synthesis


4.Regarding the RPE

a. contains phagosomes from inner segment of disc

b. contains lipofuscin from outer segment of disc

c. has active mitosis


5.  Bruch's membrane is formed by

a. basement membrane of RPE and basement membrane of choriocapilaris

6. metabolism of lens cells are mainly by

a. Hexose monophosphate shunt

b. glycolysis


7. Homeobox genes

a. regulate other genes


8.The following promotes proliferation of cells during development






9. The opening of the maxillary sinus is:

a. middle meatus

b. inferior meatus

c. superior meatus

d. none of the above


10. Regarding trabecular meshwork beams

a. consists of collagen elastin            

11.Bowman's membrane

a. terminates as the schwalbe's line
b. is a basement membrane
c. is 50 microns thick
d. heals with scaring

12. The functions of the glycoalyx found on cornea epithelium is for:


13. How many epithelium layers are there

 a. 2-5 layers
b. 5-6 layers
c. 10-12 layers
d. 1 layer

14. Toxacara   

a. is a helminth           

b. is a nematode
c. is a fungus
d. is a intracellular protozoaan

15. Acathanthomoeba


a. is a free living amoeba in tap water which can cause cornea ulcers
b. is killed by antibiotics

16. The henle fibre is formed by

a. Outer plexiform layer
b. Inner plexiform layer
c. Inner nuclear layer
d. Outer nuclear layer


17. The anterior ethmoid foramen is found

 a. between frontal and ethmoid bone
b. within frontal bone only
c. between ethmoid bone and lacrimal bone
d. within sphenoid bone


18. Endothelium is held in the base by

 a. desmosomes
b. hemidesmosomes

19. Regarding sterilization at 121 degrees celsius at 100 kpa requires

 a. 3 minutes
b. 10 minutes
c. 60 minutes
d. 100 minutes

20. Culture for toxoplasmosis

a. Chocalate agar
b. McConkey
c. Thayer Martin

21. Culture for acanthoemaba


a. Blood agar

b. McConkey agar

c. Nutrient agar with E.coli overlay



22.Superoxide dismutase catalyzes  the dismutation of superoxide to


a. hydrogen peroxide

b. water

c. catalase

d. peroxidase



23. Orbital septum inserts into


a. Troclea

b. anterior of levator aponeurosis





24. Allowing 5 minutes between two eye drops works on the principle of


a. Pharmacokinetics

b. Pharmacodynamics

c. Bioavailability




24. The nerve that passes close to the petrous part of the temporal bone is


a. V nerve

b. VI nerve

c. III nerve

d. IV nerve



26. The cornea hydration is maintained by the following in the endothelium


a. Na K ATPase pump

b. Na Bicarbonate pump

c. Passive diffusion

d. introcular pressure



27. Regarding the superior field of vision


a. Subtended by 80 degrees of vertical vision

b. is not affected by an upper lid pathology

c. is more sensitive than the inferior field of vision




28. The exit of the VII nerve is


a. Stylomastoid foramen

b. Jugular foramen

c. Foramen ovale

d. Foramen rotundum



29. Regarding toxoplasmosis


a. is an obligate intracellular organism



30. Acyclovir works by


a. activating thymidine kinase

b. inhibiting DNA polymerase



31. Erythromicin functions by


a. inhibiting ribosomal synthesis

b. inhibiting cell wall synthesis

c. inhibiting DNA polymerase



32. The anterior chamber depth is approximately


a. 1 mm

b. 3 mm

c. 5 mm

d. 6 mm



33. The most abundant muscles in the ciliary body is


a. Longitudinal muscles

b. circular muscles

c. oblique muscles

d. striated muscles



34. Regarding the ligament of lockwood


a. condensation of muscle sleeves of inferior rectus and inferior oblique

b. forms a band in the floor of the periosteum





35. The muscle fibres which are only found in extraocular muscles is


a. tonic fibres

b. twitch fibres

c. fast fibres

d. slow fibres



36. The course of the 3rd nerve is


a. penetrates the arachnoid between the free and attached borders of the tentorium cerebelli






34. The fourth nerve exits at


a.inferior to the inferior colliculus

b.superior to superior colliculus





35. Regarding the vitreous


a. develops from neuroectoderm

b. 70 % water

c. firmly attached to posterior surface of lens




36. The canal of schlemm is lined by


a. single layer of fenestrated endothelium

b. single layer of non-fenestrated endothelium joined by tight junctions





37. Regarding mitocondria inheritance


a. both male and female members will inherit the trait if from the mother



38. The main type of collagen in the stroma is


a. type 1

b. type 2

c.type 3

d. type 4



39. A child has retinal dystrophy, his father also has it , what mode of inheritance (X-linked dominant)


40. A child has an ocular disease. On further questioning, his maternal grandfather also has the same illness. The most likely form of inheritance is


a. X linked recessive

b. X linked dominant

c. autosomal recessive

d. autosomal dominant



41. Down's syndrome is associated with


a. Trisomy 21

b. Trisomy 13

c. Trisomy 18




42. Regarding Botulinum toxin


a. it's effect on eyelids is irreversible

b. available in powder form which can be reconstituted





43. The action of Botulinum toxin


a. blocks the release of presynaptic acetylcholine

b. binds reversibly with acetylcholine receptors

c. binds irreversibly with acetylcholine receptors




44. Regarding the medial rectus muscle


a. 6.5 mm from limbus

b. ineverted on it's nasal side

c. ineverted by the 5th nerve

d. has the same origins as the inferior oblique


45. During the depolarization in a muscle, the following happens


          a. increase in the levels of calcium

b.  reduction of the levels of calcium

c. contraction of the myosin bands

d. contraction of actin



46. The following is a direct acting cholinergic agonist


a. Pilocarpine

b. Phenylephrine

c. ThymoxamiTne

d. Epinephrine


47. Prostaglandin analogues work by


a. increasing uveoscleral outflow

b. increasing trabecular outflow

c. decrease aqueous production



48. Which chromosome / gene defect is associated with Retinoblastoma 

a. Chromosome 11 

b. Chromosome 13 

c. Chromosome 18 

d. PAX 6 


49. Regarding down's syndrome

a. incidence increased with increasing maternal age



50. Regarding alpha crystalins

a. not found elsewhere in the body besides the lens

b. remains stable throughout life




51. Corneal endothelium has a density of 

a. 6000 cells/mm2 

b. 3500 cells/ mm2 

c. 2000 cells/mm2 

d. 1500 cells/mm2 


52.Which of the bone of the orbit has cartilage component? 

a. Zygoma 

b. Sphenoid 

c. Frontal 

d. Maxilla 


53. The grey line corresponds with the


a. mucocutaneous junction

b. ciliary hair



54. Scleral rupture is most common in


a. at the limbus

b. radially at the insertion of the rectus muscles

c. circumferentially around the insertion of the rectus muscles

d. posteriorly at the sclera pole



55. Devitalized tissues are best stained with


a. Fluorescein stain

b. ICG

c. Rose bengal




56. Aqueous is drained through the endothelium of canal of schlemm by


a. micropynocitic vesicles and giant vacuoles

b. through fenestrations



57. Damage to the visual radiation in the anterior temporal lobe gives rise to


a. upper homonymous quadranopia

b. homonymous hemianopia

c. bitemporal hemianopia



58. Regarding edinger westphal nucleus


a. was first described by edinger in westphal

b. is preganglionic





59. Sensation from the upper part of the face has tracts to the


a. mesencephalic nucleus

b. main sensory nucleus

c. spinal nucleus

d. trigeminal ganglion



60. Regarding the development of the lens


a. happens around month 1-2 of gestation

b. happens in the first 2-3 weeks

c. happens at 5 months

d. happens after 6 months



61. Vitreous is most firmly attached to


a. posterior part of lens

b. macula

c. equator

d. around the optic disc



62. Most colour vision defects are caused by


            a . S cone mutations

            b. L and M cone mutations



63. Bioavailability of a topical application is increased in


a. a defect in the cornea

b. increasing the amount of topical medication




64. Horizontal cells nucleus are found in


a. inner nuclear layer

b. outer nuclear layer

c. outer plexiform layer

d. inner plexiform layer



65. Regarding the lipid layer of the tear film


a. contains polar lipids which are hydrophobic

b. contain cholesterol and wax esters

c. contain non charge compounds

d. is the innermost layer



66. The most abundant Ig in tears is


a. Ig A

b. Ig D

c. Ig E

d. Ig G



67. The zonular fibres are made of


a. collagen

b. hyalarunan

c. fibrillin

d. proteoglycans



68. Zonular fibres arise from


69. The following muscles is attached to the scleral spur


            a. Longitudinal muscle

            b. circular muscle

            c. radial muscle

            d. iris dilator muscles



70. The conjunctival epithelium.


 a. mainly supplied by ciliary arteries

 b. has B and T lymphocytes in relation with CALT

 c. is a single layer of epithelium



 71. The obicularis oculi muscle is innervated by


a. III nerve

b. VI nerve

c. VII nerve

d. V nerve



72. The vortex veins drain the


a. Iris

b. Retina

c. extraocular muscles

d. cornea



73. The anterior ciliary arteries supply all the rectus muscles in pairs except


a. lateral rectus

b. medial rectus

c. inferior rectus

d. superior rectus



74. Regarding fast twitch fibres


a. innverated en plaque

b. innervated en grappe

c. mainly around the orbital area

d. nerve endings centrally



75. The crypts of the limbus are in close association with


a. Langerhans cells






76. MMP 2


a. dependent on Zn






77. Bacterial mutation is caused by changes in


            a. plasmid

            b. DNA





78. The non-pigmented layer of the iris is in continuation with


79. The following are  a part of the anterior chamber angle


80. The incidence of down's syndrome is


a. increased to 50 % for the second child if the first child has it

b. increasing with increasing maternal age

c. increasing with increasing paternal age




81. Regarding the contents of the acqueous in comparison to plasma


a. has a higher content of protein

b. has a higher ascorbic acid level

d. has a higher potassium level

e. has a higher sodium level



82. Regarding the superior oblique muscle

            a. arises from the annulus of zinn just above and medial to the optic


            b. has no tendon



83. The inferior oblique muscle originates from


a. just lateral to the nasolacrimal duct

b. frontal bone

c. ligament of lockwood



84. The lacrimal cannaliculi

          a. is lined by a single layer of cuboidal cells

          b. inferior punctum is more medial than the superior punctum to the medial


c. in 90% of the people the cannaliculi join to form a common cannaliculus



85. The lens capsule


a. is uniform

b. is thicker posteriorly

c. is inelastic

d. is derived from ectoderm



86. The lacrimal gland fossa is made up of the following bone/ bones


87.The floor of the orbit is formed by the following bones/bone


88. The anterior posterior diameter of the adult is approximately:


89. The forehead area is innevervated by:

a. corticobulbar fibres from both cerebral hemispheres

b. corticospinal fibres from both cerebral hemispheres


90. The lens

a. contributes 60D of the focusing power of the eye

b. primary lens fibres persist for life

c. lens capsule is made of type IV collagen


91. Ciliary ganglion contains the following


92. Lactic acid accumulating in the cornea has the following consequence


93. Regarding the corneal stroma

a. derived from the neural crest

b. mainly type 2 collagen

c. collagen fibrils are arranged similarly to sclera


94. The corneal stroma's primarily derives its glucose from


95. The action of the superior rectus is

a. elevates, adducts, intorts

b. elevates, abducts, intorts

c. depresses, adducts, extorts

d. depresses, abducts, extorts


96. The basal lamina of the inner layer of the optic cup differentiate into 

a. Internal limiting membrane 

b. Nerve fiber layer 

c. External limiting membrane 

d. Bruch's membrane


97. Sympathetic fibres to the iris synapse at

a. ciliary ganglion

b. stellate ganglion

c. pterygopalatine ganglion

d. superior cervical ganglion


98.  Maximal number of axon in the optic nerve is achieved during 

a. 5 weeks gestation 

b. 15 weeks gestation 

c. 40 weeks gestation 

d. Anytime at birth


99. The primary blood supply to the eyelids are:

a .opthalmic arteries

b. marginal arteries

c. facial artery


100. Regarding oral acetazolamide

a. causes hypercalcaemia

b. contraindicated in renal diseases           




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