Date: November, 2004
• Practice refraction as it is crucial, at least 100 refractions before exams.
• I used these books: Frank and Elkington, contact lens chapter in an old edition of American Academy (1995-96), relevant chapters in Kanski and Fiona Rowe’s clinical orthoptics book. My library had them so I did not buy any.
• I hardly think you need more than that for the OSE and MCQs. For the more obscure MCQs, there is no way you can prepare anyway. I did not use Chua’s or Bhan’s Part 2 books, so I cannot comment.
• Only one course is enough, the rest is up to you to work hard. Certainly I know a lot of people who did not attend any and still passed first time round. I only went to Nottingham, which was worthwhile, but definitely over-hyped and overpriced. If you have money to spare, you could also go to Dundee, Bradford and Cardiff. Other courses are a waste of money from hearsay.
1. Contrast sensitivity
Peak, spatial frequency of Vistech and Pelli-Robson, decrease with age due to lens opacities, directly proportional to spatial resolution2. Purkinje shift
Blue clearer at dawn? Red clearer at dusk?3. Tonometer
Do you need BSV? Something about Mackay-Marg tonometer4. Optic nerve field defects
5. Retrochiasmal field defects
6. Measurement of torsion
Bagolini lenses, Maddox double rod
8. Contraindications to bifocals
3D of oblique astigmatism in both eyes, vertigo, 4 prism dioptre of vertical phoria
Depends on: angle of incidence, wavelength, refractive index between 2 media
Affected by material composition, temperature, can never be less than 1
14. Magnification of direct and indirect
15. Instruments which produce erect image
Astronomical telescope, microscope, keratoscope, 90D and pinhole camera
17. Hand held magnifier
Field of view, should be worn with near add
Fluorescein, puncta, schirmer’s, CT-scan
20. Initial investigations of a young child with ptosis
VA, VF, Fundus, EOMs
Can it measure tropia and phoria?
Always an afferent pathway problem, can be assessed by RAPD
25. Catoptric images
Position is the result of refraction, tapetoretinal reflex
28. Toric transposition
29. Chromatic abberation
Minimised by polarising doublets
These factors have a significant impact on aberration: diffraction, chromatic aberration, spherical aberration, blue light being refracted more
Contains dichroic crystals, arranged horizontally, haldinger’s brushes, examine contact lens defects
33. Red-free of direct
RNFL defects better seen with tinted lenses
35. Maddox rod
36. Optics of Jackson X-Cyl
The circle of least confusion moves, should not caused any prismatic effect if used well
38. Material used for anti-reflective coatings
40. ECCE sutures
Needs to be mounted on slit lamp, quantitative measure of anterior corneal surface, image formed is erect and real
TED can cause fluctuation, D-15 can measure tritan axis, Ishihara can measure acquired colour defect, outer retinal layer dysfunction causes blue-yellow defect
44. Soft contact lenses
Diamter larger than cornea, H2O2 as disinfectant, does not require keratometry, does not require fluorescein to assess fit
Scratch easily, photochromic lenses
Stenopaiec slit, block and fan, X-Cyl
48. Presentation of thyroid eye disease
See candidate 30
Overall friendly examiners. A couple of poker-faced ones but not vicious.
82 lady who was a WRVS volunteer in the hospital. Bilateral pseudophake and previous left yag capsulotomy. Initially worried given her age and smallish pupil, but she was very cooperative and gave quick answers.
6/4 after objective refraction and hardly had to change anything for subjective. Had time to do Maddox rod and discuss with the examiner the various options for presbyopic correction.