Test 8
.1. Dissociated vertical deviation (DVD):
a. is pathognomonic of infantile esotropia
b. is usually unilateral
c. causes hypertropia on adduction
d. can not be explained with Hering's law
e. accurate measurement is important to produce a predictable surgical outcome

2. Spasm of the near reflex may be confused with accommodative esotropia. Features suggestive of 
    spasm of the near reflex include:
a. myopic shift is common
b. variable esotropia is a feature
c. miosis is a common feature
d. on attempted lateral gaze, miosis can occur.
e. the esotropia is worse for near than distant

a. congenital exotropia is less common than congenital esotropia
b. the most common cause of constant exotropia is decompensated intermittent exotropia
c. intermittent exotropia seen in childhood usually disappear as the child grows older
d. high AC/A ratio is seen in intermittent exotropia
e. amblyopia is common in patients with intermittent exotropia


4. Convergence insufficiency:
a. can occur in the presence of normal accommodation
b. causes exophoria at near
c. can be treated with a base-in prism
d. can be treated with a base-out prism
e. can be treated with plus lenses


5. The following are true about spectacle prescription in childhood:
a. without cycloplegia, the refraction tends to be underestimated in a child with
b. anisometropic amblyopia is commoner in hypermetropia than in myopia
c. overcorrection of myopia may lead to problem with reading
d. hypermetropia of 2-3 D is common in children 
e. hypermetropia in children tends to decrease with age

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