Clinically significant macular oedema.
Diabetic maculopathy treated with argon laser.
Note: This is a very popular case, you must demonstrate to the examiner(s) that you know what is meant
by significantly macular oedema (this is done through physical examination and not fluorescein angiography).
The maculopathy may occur in background diabetic retinopathy or in association with preproliferative or
proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The clinical appearance of the maculopathy alone cannot distinguish between
ischaemic from non-ischaemic maculopathy.
There are multiple dot and blot haemorrhages, microaneurysms and hard exudates (which may be circinate and
form around a leaking microaneurysm). The presence of macula oedema is regarded as clinically significant if:a. retinal thickening at or within 500um of the centre of the macula
b. hard exudates at or within 500um of the macular centre if associated with thickening of the
c. retinal thickening at least one disc area in extent, any part of which is within one disc diameter of the
1. What is the most common cause of visual loss in diabetic retinopathy?