Candidate 8   Pass                                        Centre:  Liverpool
                                                                     Date:     June, 2001


Case 1.
Identify and draw the ray diagram for the Fresnel prism.

Case 2
Identify and interpret a Humphrey Automated visual field. Showed an altitudinal defect.

Case 3. 
Identify and comment on a B-scan us.  This showed a retinal detachment.  Other candidates thought it was a choroidal effusion.

Case 4. 
Principle of the Hess chart.  Comment on one showing a fourth nerve palsy.

Case 5. 
Principle of and comment on an FFA.  Showing proliferative DR.  Others thought it to be CRVO.

Case 6.
Comment on an x-ray showing a metallic foreign body. Inadequate views to say if indeed intraocular.

Case 7.
Interpret an orthoptic report and comment on the management.  A case of anisometropic amblyopia.

Case 8. 
Identify an ERG.  What anatomical structures does it represent.


Case 1. 
Left RAPD.  Patient also had L proptosis. Questions on light pathway and likely position of the lesion in this case. The pharmacological tests for abnormal pupils.

Case 2. 
Slit-lamp examination of both eyes with congenital cataracts and superior optical iridectomies. Principles of slit lamp examination.  Correct use of applanation head
( where to place the red line).

Case 3. 
VFT by confrontation.  Patient with bitemporal hemianopia more dense inferiorly.  Where is the lesion and from which direction.

Case 4
Ocular motility and cover test.  Patient had a left fourth nerve palsy.  Not very obvious (many others missed it).

Case 5. 
Focimetry of bifocals( one side only).  Principle of focimeter.

Case 6. 
Keratometry(Javal-Schiotz).  Principle of it (I drew a diagram to illustrate).

Case 7. 
Direct Ophthalmoscopy.  A 30-something male patient with sectorial chorioretinal degeneration and discrete round red lesion at macula with yellow spots. I thought it to be a traumatic macula hole. Questions on the magnification of the direct,  image size in ametropia and use of filters on it.

Case 8. 
Indirect to view a lesion in the superotemporal quadrant using the first indirect ever invented!!.  A grey lesion with a convex border towards the posterior
pole.  I diagnosed a retinoshisis and was asked to draw it on a retinal detachment chart.


Compound Hypermetropia with an esophoria( 12 Prism
dioptres base out).

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