Past MRCOphth/MRCS questions: 18
1. Retinoblastoma:
a. can present with rubeosis iridis
b. Flexner Wintersteiner rosettes surround a hyaluronidase 
    resistant and mucopolysaccharide
b. Homer Wright rosettes may also be found in 
    medulloblastoma and neuroblastoma
d. fleurettes represent the least differentiated tumour
e. trilateral tumour has a better diagnosis

2. Cytomegalovirus infection:

a. is diagnosed by intramitochondrial inclusions of infected 
b. in utero results in congenital deformities in 8-% of cases
c. in an adult is commonest in AIDS and presents with 
    retinal necrosis and haemorrhage
d. causes deafness, choroiditis and cerebral calcifications
e. is caused by DNA herpes virus and responds to 

3. The CT scan findings in thyroid ophthalmopathy are:

a. enlargement of extraocular muscle bellies
b. enlargement of tendons of extraocular muscles
c. enlargement of lacrimal gland
d. thickening of optic nerve
e. medial bowing of lacrimal papyracea

4. In radiation and thermal burns:

a. radiation therapy to the paranasal sinuses or pituitary 
    lesions exposes the optic nerves to direct ionising 
b. optic nerve radionecrosis occurs within 3 years of 
c. thermal burns of the body can cause optic neuropathy
d. thermal burn optic neuritis is due to septicaemia or 
    circulatory failure
e. the optic nerve is more resistant than lens to radiation

5. In the pharmacology of anti-glaucoma drugs:

a. pilocarpine reduces production of aqueous by exerting 
    an inhibitory action on the ciliary epithelium
b. sympathomimetics reduce intraocular pressure by 
    increasing uveal scleral outflow
c. carbachol increases aqueous outflow via the trabecular 
    meshwork thereby lowering intraocular pressure
d. pilocarpine induced miosis begins 2-10 minutes after 
    instillation and lasts 4-8 hours
e. echothiophate iodide causes accommodation spasm, 
    cataractogenciity, iris cysts and retinal detachment as 

6. Optic nerve glioma:

a. is more common in children than in adults
b. originates from the myelin sheath of the optic nerve 
c. causes erosion of the optic foramen margin which is 
    demonstrable radiologically
d. causes loss of vision early
e. causes axial proptosis

7. Advantages of cryotherapy over diathermy include:

a. cryotherapy causes little or no scleral damage
b. cryotherapy shrinks the sclera thus facilitating closure 
    of the drainage site
c. cryotherapy does not force fluid from the eye thus 
    maintaining a reasonable intraocular pressure
d. cryotherapy can be safely applied over staphylomatous 
e. cryotherapy causes no damage to the vortex veins or 
    ciliary arteries

8. Complications of retinal detachment operations include:

a. strabismus
b. refractive error
c. macular pucker
d. anterior segment necrosis
e. angle closure glaucoma

9. Regarding buckles:

a. encirclage reduces vitreous traction in the eye
b. scleral dissection is required in explants
c. encirclage is indicated when there is evidence of 
    proliferative vitreoretinoapthy
d. an encirclage can be used if no holes are found on 
e. maximal reduction of vitreous traction can be achieved 
    only if the encircling band constricts the vitreous base.

10. Pseudomembranes are produced in:

a. gonorrheal ophthalmia
b. pneumococcal conjunctivitis
c. meningococcal conjunctivitis
d. Stevens-Johnson syndrome
e. herpes simplex conjunctivitis
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