Past MRCOphth/MRCS questions: 12
1.    Paving-stone retinal degeneration:
a. is present in 50% of patients
b. is located superiorly
c. is located posterior to the equator
d. does not predispose to retinal breaks
e. is most prevalent in younger age groups

2. The following are causes of non-rhegmatogenous retinal 

a. eclampsia of pregnancy
b. Wagner's vitreoretinal degeneration
c. malignant hypertension
d. Coat's disease
e. haemangioma

3. In toxic amblyopia:

a. both eyes are usually involved within 3 months of each 
b. treatment consists of abstention from tobacco and 
    alcohol plus cyanocobalamin injections
c. improvement is usually seen in 3 months if patient 
    adheres to the prescribed regimen
d. visual fields abnormalities may include junctional 
e. the scotomas are larger for red and green targets than 
    for blue

4. In retinitis pigmentosa:

a. perifoveal telangiectasia have been reported
b. use of recombinant probe shows a locus on the long 
    arm of the X chromosome in X linked retinitis 
c. there may be serum lipid abnormalities in some cases
d. fluorescein angiogram may show a subtle bulls eye 
e. optic nerve pallor is not a diagnostic criteria

5. In Bird-shot chorioretinopathy:

a. mild anterior chamber reaction is often seen
b. arteriolar narrowing and vascular sheathing can be seen
c. ERG shows decreased amplitude
d. there is an associations with HLA-A 29
e. there is a sensitization to retinal S antigen

6. Acute retinal necrosis:

a. is associated with retinal tears and retinal detachment
b. is caused by cytomegalovirus
c. is caused by herpes zoster virus
d. acyclovir given early is useful in presenting retinal 
e. Bechet's disease is a differential diagnosis

7. Regarding intraocular gases (SF6) used in retinal detachment 

a. sulfur hexafluoride is highly lipid soluble
b. there is rapid influx of venous nitrogen into the 
    intravitreal pocket of gas
c. a mixture of 40% SF6 and 60% air does not increase 
    in volume when left in the eye
d. posterior capsular cataracts are a complications
e. there is no electrophysiologic evidence of toxicity

8. With regard to ultrasound:

a. a choroidal haemangioma shows a highly reflective 
    A-scan pattern
b. a choroidal melanoma shows a highly reflective A-scan 
c. a metastatic carcinoma has medium high retinal 
d. a disciform scar has high reflectivity
e. a fresh subretinal haemorrhage has low reflectivity

9. In retinoblastoma:

a. the ratio of aqueous to plasma lactate dehydrogenase is 
b. the ratio of aqueous to plasma phosphoglucose 
    isomerase is reduced
c. aqueous and vitreous aspirate for cytology may help 
    differentiate retinoblastoma from other lesions
d. a CT scan is useful to detect intraocular tumours with 
e. there is an association with deletion of specific band in 
    chromosome 13p14

10. Vitamin B deficiency:

a. may produce a decrease in central vision with relative 
    sparing of peripheral vision
b. colour vision is not involved
c. in long-standing cases temporal pallor of the optic 
    nerve is always present
d. retinal haemorrhages may be present
e. is actually the cause of alcohol-tobacco amblyopia.
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