Retinoblastoma. A whole globe was shown and asked about the stains used
and describe what can be seen. Asked to give a differential diagnosis.
Question on optic nerve extension whether it is more common in retinoblastoma
Picture of Flexner-Winterstein rosettes. Questions on why they form, what
sort of cells the retinoblastoma cells would normally differentiate into
ie. photoreceptor cells and the degree of differentiation.
Definition of metaplasia. What would you interpret from a report that says
squamous cell metaplasia.
Retinoblastoma again. How would it present, investigations and what
are the typical histology features. Chlamydial conjunctivitis: its presentation,
treatment and differential diagnosis.
Sarcoidosis. Investigations and differential diagnosis.
Counselling a 50 year old librarian for cataract surgery. The patient is
myopic with refraction of RE -15.00D (operating eye) and LE -14D (6/9).
Biometry aim to leave at -3.00D. Questions asked by examiners:
What would be her risk for retinal detachment?
Questions asked by patient:
Can she be left to wear glasses in the distance but read unaided?
Why does she need to have the other eye done despite the good vision?
Discussion on anisometropia.
Can she have a general anaesthesia as she is scared or sedation?
Elderly lady with Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy and cataract. Discussion
regarding whether cataract surgery is indicated (vision is 6/180, risk
of cataract surgery. Methods of reducing risk of corneal oedema and treatment
of corneal oedema.
Young man with Crohn's disease and acne rosacea. Discussion about acne
rosacea and ocular features: blepharitis, peripheral corneal thinning and
neovascularization. Causes of peripheral corneal thinning.
Orbit and Neuroophthalmology:
Elderly lady with obvious right proptosis and diplopia in right lateral
gaze. Examination of face and head. Description only was asked? The patient
has 2 burr holes on the forehead due to previous neurosurgical procedure.
of ocular movements. Asked causes of axial and non-axial proptosis.
Examination of pupils on a young girl of about 20. Right relative afferent
pupillary defect. What else would I look for? asked the examiner Causes
of RAPD. Visual field examination on the vision shows no vision in the
right eye and hemifield defect in the the left. Asked possible causes of
field defects. Methods of differentiating a pituitary from craniopharyngioma
on the visual fields.
Fundal examination: old central retinal vein occlusion with pan-photocoagulation
and collaterals. Discussion about investigation in young man (<40) with
central retinal vein occlusion. What treatment would I start the him on?
Aspirin or warfarin and why? If he presented at 6/12 with deep vein thrombosis
and what would I do? How long would I treat DVT with warfarin and what
is the ideal INR?
Examination of a tremor. What are the features of a tremor. What are the
different types of treatment? Examine this lady's tremor. She was hyperthyroid
with a flap tremor. What bedside investigations would you do to see if
there were any cardiovascular feature? (ECG and pulse for atrial fibrillation)
Hemivein occlusion with sector panphotocoagulation. Also new vessels. Asked
Trauma to eye 10 to 15 years earlier. Subluxated lens (laterally) with
cataract and total retinal detachment. Options for treatment of lens and
retina. What is the most likely cause for these feature? (I was not told
at the beginning that the patient has trauma so I gave a differential diagnosis).
What are the causes of retinal detachment (rhegmatogenous and non-rhegmatogenous)?
How would you repair the retinal detachment and visual prognosis?
Pigment dispersion syndrome. What medical treatment and the reason for
each alternative? What is medical treatment fail?
Normal tension glaucoma. What investigations would I perform? The need
for phasing and when is IOP the highest?