Past MRCOphth April, 2003
1. Optokinetic nystagmus
a. Abnormal in parietal lobe infarct
b. Asymmetrical OKN can be normal in young infants
2. Vergence
a. Is involved in motor fusion
b. Varies depending on the degree of accommodation
c. Can involve saccades of different amplitude
d. Can be both horizontal and vertical

3. Stereopsis

a. Requires bifoveal fixation
b. Develops at age 3-4
c. Microsaccades are involved

4. Crystallins

a. Alpha and beta crystallins expressed at the same time embyrologically

5. Foveola

a. Henle’s fibre layer is present
b. Contains 2 layers of ganglion cells
c. Thinnest layer of the retina
d. Thickening of internal limiting membrane

6. Cornea

a. produces three Purkinje images
b. Causes spherical aberration

7. Activation of prothrombin

a. requires platelets 

8. Retrolaminar optic nerve blood supply comes from:

a. long ciliary artery
b. Circle of Zinn Haller
c. central retinal artery
d. dural branches of ophthalmic artery

9. Integrins and Thrombospondins

10. CSF

a. Site of maximum production
b. Greater volume within ventricles
c. Is only a plama ultrafiltrate

11. Superior colliculus

a. Inferior and superior brachium

12. UV absorption by cornea and lens

13. Optic chiasm

a. Anterior aspect contains macular fibre

14. Optic tract

a. Curves around cerebral peduncle
b. Inferior to posterior communicating artery
c. Inferior to third ventricle
d. Posterior to pituitary stalk
e. Passes over diaphragm sellae

15. Lateral geniculate nucleus

a. Distribution of macular fibres
b. Ipsilateral and contralateral projections
c. The ganglion cell axon terminates in five or six branches 

16. Anterior choroidal artery

17. Basement membrane

a. Contains elastin

18. Trabecular meshwork

a. Contains elastin
b. Is in communication with the canal of schlemm
c. Is supported by the papillary dilator muscle
19. Pattern VEPs
a. Affected by strabismic amblyopia
b. Affected by refractive error

20. EOG

a. Useful to assess integrity of retina in unconscious patients

21. Atrial natriuretic hormone

22. Anterior/Posterior pituitary hormone.s

23. Adrenal gland hormones

24. Collagen

a. Contains predominantly lysine and leucine
b. Exists as molecules in the endosplasmic reticulum
c. Hydroxylation of proline/lysine

25. With regards to physical exercise

a. coronary arteries constrict
b. cerebral arteries constrict

26. Effects of adrenaline

27. Raised Pco2 occurs in

a. hypoventilation
b. salicylate overdose
c. carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

28. Retinal embryology

a. cone pedicles develop before rod spherules
b. outer segment develop at 7 months

29. Embryology of the orbit

a. origin of nasolacrimal duct
b. lower eyelid derived from maxillary process
c. upper eyelid derived from frontonasal prominence
d. development complete by 7th week

30. Iris

a. attached to middle of anterior surface of ciliary body
b. posterior epithelium derived from rim of optic cup


a. Firmly attached to Bruch’s membrane
b. Shows autoregulation
c. Has an autonomic nerve supply

32. Photoreceptors

a. Blood supply
b. Reduced oxygen consumption in the light adapted retina
c. Have twice oxygen consumption compared to cerebral cortex

33.Short ciliary nerve

a. contains sympathetic fibres


a. Ball and socket joint
b. Contains macula adherens
c. Anterior epithelial cells produce crystallins
d. Contain multinucleate cells


a. Require correction of long distance prescription with time
b. More likely to develop presbyopia than myopes
c. Corrected with diverging lenses
d. Have shorter axial lengths
e. Have high state of accommodation

36. Inferior rectus

a. Is connected/attached to the lower eyelids

37. Abducent

a. Longest nerve
b. Pierces endosteal layer at clivus
c. Relationship to petrosphenoidal ligament

38. Cholesterol

a. Heaviest molecule in membrane
b. Increases plasma deformability
c. Has hydrophilic group on C-3
d. Covalently attached to other membrane components

39. Magnocellular pathways

a. Low contrast, High Frequency

40. Cavernous sinus

41. Iris histology

42. Vitreous

a. Has a cortical gel
b. Anterior vitreous face
c. Posterior vitreous 
More MCQs