Past MCQs for Paper 1 (Feb, 1992)
1. The cells of the RPE:
a. are smaller at the fovea than elsewhere in the retina
b. are of mesenchymal origin
c. form the outer blood-retinal barrier
d. have intracellular melanosomes
e. regenerate visual pigment

2. In the eyelids:

a. the orifices of the Meibomian glands are anterior to the exits of 
    the eyelashes
b. the tarsal plate is continuos peripherally with the orbital septum
c. the Meibomian glands are deep to the tarsal plate
d. the sensory nerve supply to the lower lid is not exclusively from 
    the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve
e. contain no lymphatics
3. The sclera:
a. is thickest just posterior to limbus
b. is thinnest just posterior to the insertions of the rectus muscles
c. becomes transparent if the water content decreases
d. is mainly composed of regular arranged collagen fibres
e. forms the lamina cribrosa

4. The inferior rectus muscle:

a. is attached to the lower eyelid
b. its insertion is 6.5 mm behind limbus
c. is innervated from its inferior surface
d. passes forward and medially across the orbit
e. lies inferior to the inferior oblique muscle

5. The vitreous:

a. is a hydrogel with a water content of over 98%
b. its gel properties are provided by a network of collagen fibres
c. is firmly attached to the periphery of the macula
d. has a relatively high concentration of hyaluronic acid
e. is kept transparent by a high retinal concentration of ascorbic acid 
   maintaining an electrostatic orientation of the collagen fibrils

6. The optic nerve;

a. is invaginated by the hyaloid artery in the 5th month of 
    embryonal life
b. has a a sheath of dura
c. is myelinated only as far forward as the optic foramen
d. retains the macular derived fibres in its centre until the optic 
e. gets all its blood form branches of the ophthalmic artery

7. The trabecular meshwork:

a. acts as a filter and an one-way valve
b. is opened by contraction of the medional component of the ciliary 
c. uses a giant vacuole system for bulk flow transport of aqueous
d. is made up of a framework of collagen
e. is posterior to the scleral spur

8. The ciliary ganglion:

a. is located between the optic nerve and the medial rectus muscle
b. receives a sympathetic root
c. has a motor root from the nerve to the inferior oblique muscle
d. is a parasympathetic relay ganglion for fibres form the 
   Edinger-Westphal nucleus
e. carries fibres that innervate the sphincter pupillae

9. The levator palpebrae superioris muscle:

a. originates from the lesser wing of sphenoid
b. inserts into the pretarsal portion of the orbicularis oculi muscle
c. is separated from the roof of the orbit by the sixth cranial nerve 
   and the frontal nerves
d. raises the upper eyelid by 20mm
e. pierces through the orbital septum 1mm above tarsal plate

10. The internal acoustic meatus:

a. is 1 cm long
b. the seventh cranial nerve runs in it
c. is closed medially by a perforated bony plate
d. leads to the middle cranial fossa
e. lies in the petrous temporal bone

11. Structures going through foramina:

a. the ophthalmic artery runs through the optic foramen
b. the deep petrosal nerve runs through the foramen spinosum
c. the oculomotor nerve runs through the supraorbital fissure
d. the accessory nerve runs through the infraorbital fissure
e. the second division of the trigeminal nerve runs through 
    the foramen ovale
12. The nasociliary nerve supplies:
a. the sphenoidal sinus
b. the ethmoidal sinus
c. the dilator pupillae muscle
d. the cornea
e. the lacrimal sac
13. The pterygopalatine fossa:
a. communicates with the orbit through the supraorbital fissure
b. contains the maxillary nerve
c. is bounded superiorly by the lesser wing of sphenoid
d. contains the maxillary artery
e. sympathetic supply from plexus around internal carotid artery
14. The hyaloid artery:
a. is a branch of the dorsal ophthalmic artery
b. may persist in Bergmeisters papilla
c. forms a a vascular plexus with the tunica vasculosus lentis
d. regresses after birth
e. communicates freely with the choroidal vessels throughout 
15. The internal carotid artery:
a. arises at the lower border of the thyroid cartilage
b. lies initially lateral to the external carotid artery
c. runs through the foramen spinosum
d. runs along the medial wall of the cavernous sinus
e. is in the cavernous sinus accompanied by a plexus of 
    postganglionic sympathetic fibres

16. Concerning the optic stalk:

a. at 5 weeks the axons of the retinal ganglion cells pass into the stalk
b. myelination starts at the optic nerve reaching the chiasm by 7 
c. the primary optic nerve head is formed by neuroectodermal cells 
    of the inner layer of the optic cup
d. myelin is composed of oligodendrocytes
e. the axons reach the optic tract by about 7 weeks
17. The lens:
a. is formed by neural crest tissue
b. the disc becomes a vesicle of a single cell layer a few days
c. The Y suture is inverted anteriorly
d. the embryonic nucleus has no sutures
e. the capsule is secreted by the zonules

18. The following structures are of ectodermal origin:

a. the retina and its RPE
b. the pigment epithelium covering the ciliary process
c. iris stroma
d. the sphincter and dilator pupillae muscle
e. the ciliary muscle

19. Embryology:

a. myelination of the optic nerve starts at the lamina cribrosa
b. the sphincter pupillae is of ectodermal origin
c. the primary lens fibres arise from the anterior part of the lens 
d. the ciliary body epithelium is of mesodermal origin
e. the cornea derives form the neural crest.

20. The cornea is 

a. 50um thick centrally
b. contains 500 goblet cells / mm3
c. has an acellular collagenous stroma
d. is of ectodermal origin exclusively
e. the horizontal diameter is greater than the vertical diameter

21. The facial nerve:

a. its nucleus is in the floor of the fourth ventricle
b. its fibres reach the surface of the brain in the cerebellopontine 
c. transmits taste fibres for the anterior half of the tongue
d. gives the deep petrosal nerve as a branch of the sphenopalatine
e. supplies the lacrimal gland with secretomotor fibres via the 
    zygomatic and temporal branches.

22. In the head and neck:

a. the lymph form the upper lid drains to the parotid and 
    submandibular lymph nodes
b. the facial nerve comes from the first pharyngela arch
c. branches of the opthahlmic diviison of the trigeminal nerve supply 
    the skin of the scalp as far backward as the vertex
d. the veins of the scalp are connected to both the diploid veins and 
    the intracranial venous sinuses
e. an unilateral cleft lip is a failure fo the maxillary process to fuse 
    with the medial nasal process

23. The posterior connections f the ciliary ganglion are:

a. the short ciliary nerves
b. the long ciliary nerves
c. the motor root
d. the sensory root
e. the sympathetic root

24. The cornea:

a. has anterior surface of cubical epithelium
b. contains Bowman's layer which forms the basement membrane of 
    the epithelium
c. is supplied by the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve
d. has connective tissue cells between the lamellae of the substantia 
e. its endothelium is a single layer of flattened cells

25. The infraorbital nerve:

a. passes through the supraorbital fissure
b. is a branch of the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve
c. supplies teeth and upper lip
d. is of clinical importance in a fracture of the orbit
e. has mixed sensory and motor fibres

26. The optic chiasm:

a. the internal carotid artery is an immediate lateral relation
b. the maxillary bodies are immediately posterior to it
c. is inferior to the medial root of the olfactory tract
d. is in close relation to the oculomotor nerve below
e. forms the floor of the recess fo the third ventricle.
27. The blood supply to the retrolaminar portion of the optic nerve includes:
a. the circle of Zinn and Haller
b. the long posterior ciliary arteries
c. the dural branches of the ophthalmic artery
d. the short posterior ciliary arteries
e. the central retinal artery

28. The inferior oblique muscle:

a. lies between the inferior rectus muscle and the globe
b. lies between the lateral rectus muscle and the globe
c. has an intortional effect
d. gets its blood supply rom the infraorbital artery
e. has no elevating effect in abduction

29. In the lids:

a. the glands of Moll are modified sebaceous glands
b. the tarsal plate contains fibrocartilage
c. the preauricular nodes drains the lateral two thirds of the upper lid
d. has no subcutaneous fat
e. the Horner's muscle originates from the anterior lacrimal crest

30. Gram negative rods causing ocular disease are:

a. proteus vulgaris
b. serratia marcescans
c. haemophilus influenza
d. moraxella lacunata
e. pseudomonas aeruginosa

31. In a Gram stain of a corneal scraping:

a. a Gram negative diplococci is likely to be Pseudomonas
b. in  case of Gram negative bacilli aminoglycoside is the antibiotic of 
c. a negative stain means that it is sterile
d. in case of Gram positive cocci chloramphenicol qds can be given
e. a Gram negative bacillus is likely to be Moraxella

32. The following drugs are hepatotoxic:

a. penicillin
b. rifampicin
c. gentamicin
d. ketaconazole
e. acyclovir

33. Disinfection:

a. aims at the removal of all viable microbes
b. is best performed before cleaning contaminated items
c., is directed at diminishing the identified risk of infection
d. is often achieved by washing items in hot water only
e. is dependent on exposure time

34. Recognized virulence factors include:

a. the capsular polysaccharides in Haemophilus influenzae
b. Ig A proteases
c. lactamses
d. gonoccal pili
e. streptococcal M protein

35. Concerning the growth of micro-organisms:

a. yeasts multiply by binary fission
b. chlamydia is an obligate intracellular parasite
c. mycobacteria are facultative intracellular parasites
d. growth of several viruses in tissue cultures can be determined by 
    immunofluorescence before the development of cytopathic effects
e. medically important protozoa cannot be grown in vitro

36. Ig G:

a. is the most abundant Ig in serum
b. can fix complement
c. crosses the placenta
d. is the principal Ig in tears and saliva
e. binds and sensitizes mast cells

37. .Staphylococcus pyogenes:

a. produces a coagulase which requires calcium to clot plasma
b. causes tissue necrosis by alpha toxin production
c. is a commensal in the anterior half of the nose in 50% of the 
38. Culture media:
a. thyoglycollate broth is suitable for facultative anaerobes
b. chocolate agar broth is suitable for Gram negative coccus

39. Ig A:

a. is the heaviest immunoglobulin
b. is secreted in breast milk
c. is secreted in the lacrimal gland

40. Secretions of lymphocytes

41. Germ cell tumours

42. Parotid gland anatomy

43. anatomy of sympathetic trunk

44. Macrophage and granuloma

45. Basal cell carcinoma

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