Past MCQs for Paper 1 (Oct, 1992)
1. The third ventricle:
a. extends via a recess into the anterior hypothalamus
b. is related to the optic chiasma
c. lies between the thalami
d. contains the choroid plexus
e. is related to the corpora quadringemina

2. The development of the brain:

a. is from the prosencephalon, mesencephalon and rhombencephalon as three dilatations of the neural tube
b. the mesencephalon develops into the medulla and cerebellum
c. the rostral part of the prosencephalon dilates into two vesicles which become the cerebral hemispheres
d. the optic vesicle develops from the prosencephalon
e. there are flexures at the region of the mesencephalon, and between the spinal cord and medulla

3. The pineal body is related to:

a. the third ventricle
b. the mamillary bodies
c. the aqueduct of sylvius
d. the lamina terminalis
e. the posterior cerebral artery
4. In the brain:
a. the calcarine sulcus extends anteriorly to lie posterior the parieto-occipital sulcus
b. the optic tracts are related to the pyramids
c. the lateral geniculate body is supplied by branches of the posterior and middle cerebral arteries
d. the anterior choroidal artery is a branch of the internal carotid artery
e. the ophthalmic artery is axial branch of the internal carotid artery

5. The hyaloid artery:

a. comes off the dorsal ophthalmic artery
b. forms part of the vascula propria lentis
c. Bergemisters papillae is a remnant
d. regresses after birth
e. communicates freely with the choroidal circulation throughout development

6. The lens appears at 27 days:

a. a few days later forms a vesicle with a single layer of epithelial cells
b. is formed from neural crest cells
c. lens fibres formed at the equator separate anteriorly and posteriorly from the lens surface and form a Y shaped suture anteriorly
d. the embryonic lens has sutures
e. the capsule is formed from condensations of vitreous

7. The vitreous:

a. is derived in the primary vitreous from mesoderm
b. the secondary vitreous develops from retinal cells
c. the tertiary vitreous forms the zonule
d. the tertiary vitreous is a condensation of primary vitreous and a product of the ciliary body
e. the primary vitreous contains the central hyaloid canal

8. The optic chiasma:

a. The internal carotid artery lies laterally
b. is closely related to the oculomotor nerve
c. the macular fibres lie anteriorly
d. the anterior fibres loop forwards into the terminal part of the opposite optic nerve
e. lies on the diaphragm sella

9. The following are true:

a. the line of Gennari contains myelinated and unmyelinated fibres which connect to the ipsilateral cortex
b. the trochlear nerve decussates in the superior medullary velum
c. the trochlear nerve lies superior to the inferior colliculus
d. the trochlear nerve lies in the subarachnoid space of the posterior cerebral fossa
e. sympathetic fibres to the dilator pupillae pass in the short ciliary nerve
10. The macular fibres:
a. in the distal part of the optic nerve lie medially
b. found in all layers of the lateral geniculate body
c. lie between the upper and lower retinal fibres in the optic radiation

11. The lateral geniculate body:

a. is attached by the lateral brachium to the optic tract
b. is related to the medial geniculate body
c. is related to the inferior colliculus
d. is related to the hippocampal gyrus
e. is related to the dentate gyrus

12. The temporo-mandibular joint:

a. contains an articular disc
b. lies at the level of the superior border of the carotid
c. laterally lies the upper branches of the facial nerve
d. lies anterior to the tragus of the ear
e. is formed by a continuation of the coronoid process
13. The facial artery:
a. is a branch of the superficial temporal artery
b. is closely related to the submandibular gland
c. crosses the mandible at the angle of the jaw
d. lies superficial to the muscles of facial expression
e. is related to the angular vein medially by the side of the bridge of the nose

14. The facial nerve:

a. contains general sensory fibres to the middle ear
b. contains secretomotor fibres to the middle ear
c. supplies the muscles of facial expression
d. supplies the parotid gland
e. supplies general sensation to the anterior two third of the tongue
15. The sympathetic chain:
a. in the neck receives white rami communicantes from C3 - C8
b. the inferior cervical ganglion lies posterior to the vertebral artery
c. the inferior cervical ganglion sends vascular branches only to the vertebral artery
d. the middle cervical ganglion sends fibres to the pterygopalatine ganglion
e. grey rami communicantes join the cervical spinal nerves

16. In the orbit:

a. the optic canal is separated from the superior orbital fissure by the posterior root of the lesser wing of the sphenoid
b. superiorly the inferior orbital fissure is made of the greater wing of the sphenoid and maxillary bones
c. the lateral rectus arises from both margins of the superior orbital fissure
d. the inferior orbital fissure transmits the maxillary nerve
e. the inferior orbital fissure connects the infratemporal fossa and the pterygopalatine fossa with the orbital cavity
17. The following are true:
a. the inferior orbital fissure is mainly occluded in life
b. the inferior orbital fissure transmits the zygomatic nerve
c. fibres in the zygomatic nerve supply the lacrimal gland
d. the infraorbital artery supplies the lateral rectus muscle
e. the optic nerve is 2.5 mm in diameter at the orbital apex

18. The sphenopalatine ganglion:

a. has the nerve of the pterygoid canal as a branch
b. gives off the short sphenopalatine nerve
c. gives off the long sphenopalatine nerves
d. gives off the pharyngeal nerve
e. gives off the lesser petrosal nerve

19. The superior oblique muscle;

a. arises from the body of the sphenoid
b. becomes tendon 1 cm posterior to the trochlear
c. is supplied by the trochlear cranial nerve via three to four branches from the superolateral aspect
d. lies superior to the superior rectus muscle
e. produces maximal elevation in adduction

20. The nasociliary nerve:

a arises from the superior division of the ophthalmic nerve
b. terminates as the inferior trochlear and anterior ethmoidal nerves
c. supplies the posterior ethmoidal and sphenoidal sinuses
d. the branch to the ciliary ganglion arises as the nerve crosses the ophthalmic artery
e. lies above the annulus of Zinn
21. The laminar part of the optic nerve:
a. is supplied by the central artery of the retina
b. is supplied by the pial plexus
c. is supplied by eh choroid capillaries
d. is supplied by the circle of Zinn
d. is supplied by the posterior choroidal artery

22. The left recurrent laryngeal nerve:

a. passes behind the ligamentum arteriosum
b. supplies the cricothryoid muscle
c. receives a communicating branch from the superior laryngeal nerve
d. supplies the mucous membrane below the vocal cords
e. is a purely sensory nerve

23. The lacrimal apparatus:

a. the nasolacrimal duct lies in a bony canal formed by the lacrimal bone, the maxilla and the lacrimal process of the inferior turbinate
b. the nasolacrimal duct opens into the inferior meatus
c. the nasolacrimal duct contains goblet cells
d. the lacrimal sac is lined by stratified squamous epithelium
e. the duct is usually not patent at birth
24. True or false:
a. the medial palpebral ligament attaches to anterior and posterior lacrimal crests
b. the canaliculi lie posterior to the pars lacrimalis (Horner's muscle)
c. the normal functioning f the orbicularis muscle is essential to tear drainage
d. the nasolacrimal duct passes downwards, backwards and medially
e. the lacrimal sac is supplied by the infraorbital artery

25. The jugular foramen transmits:

a. the glossopharyngeal nerve
b. the mandibular division fo the trigeminal nerve
c. the inferior petrosal venous sinus
d. the internal jugular vein
e. the vagus nerve

26. The cornea:

a. is flattened more nasally than temporally
b. contains Langerhans cells
c. is 90% hydrated
d. glycosaminoglycans contribute to swelling pressure
e. transparency of the cornea depends on the size of the fibrils

27. The margin of the orbit:

a. the floor slopes downwards at an angle of 5 degrees to the horizontal
b. the medial wall has the trochlear fossa
c. the posterior ethmoidal artery lies posteriorly
d. the medial wall is made up of the frontal process of the maxillae
e. the lacrimal bone is derived from the first brachial arch
28. True or false:
a. the Muller cells contribute to internal and external limiting membranes and their nuclei lie in the inner nuclear layer
b. there is a 1:1 ratio of RPE cells to photoreceptors
c. the internal limiting membrane lies between choriocapillarois and RPE cells
d. there are multiple ganglion layers at the macula
e. the palatine bone makes up the medial wall of the orbit

29. In the eye:

a. there are tight junctions between photoreceptor cells
b. the inner nuclear layer is supplied by the choriocapillaris
c. the outer nuclear layer is supplied by the choriocapillaris

30. Autosomal recessive trait:

a. affects males and females equally
b. if rare results in a higher proportion of consanguineous mating
c. a quarter of the siblings are affected
d. with an affected parent a quarter of the offsprings are affected e. appears in most generations

31. True or false:

a. there are 23 autosomal chromosome pairs
b. in germinal cells there only 23 chromosomes
c. in females there are two X chromosomes
d. in female autosomal cells there is only activated X chromosome
e. the inactivated Y chromosome is the Barr body

32. True or false:

a. the p refers to the short arm of a chromosome
b. HLA I antigens are expressed on all cells
c. in humans there are fours classes of HLA antigens
d. the HLA antigens cause immune destruction
e. the HLA alleles are associated with certain disorders

33. True or false:

a. Downs syndrome is caused by trisomy 13
b. T lymphocytes produce macrophage activating factor
c. T lymphocytes produce interleukin I
d. interferon is produced by all cells
e. interferon is produced in response to viral agents

34. Non-specific immunity is produced by:

a. protein A
b. fatty acid secretion
c. Ig A
d. the classical complement pathway
e. beta lysin

35. True or false:

a. lysozymal enzymes are produced from lysosomes
b. immunoglobulins activate the classical complement pathway
c. blood group antibodies are gamma globulins
d. in genotype OA and OO, the personal phyenotype is blood group O
e. blood group A is the universal donor

36. Microbiology:

a. chlamydia is an obligate intracellular parasites
b. mycobacterium is a facultative parasite
c. Neisseria gonococcus is Gram negative diplococci
d. Neisseria can be grown from the throat swab of an asymptomatic person
e. Neisseria can be grown in an animal model
37. Sterilization and disinfection:
a. disinfection results in acceptable levels of microbial population
b. disinfection can be achieved by washing in hot water with no disinfectant
c. disinfection is a function of exposure of time
d. disinfection should precede cleaning of an object
e. in out-patients clinical sterilization can be achieved by a boiling water tub
38. Sterilization:
a. occurs at a lower temperature with dry heat than with wet heat
b. in autoclave depends on air evacuation
c. in an autoclave depends on water condensation on the object
d. in an autoclave can be checked with staphylococcus plate
e. in an autoclave can be checked with special paper strips

39. Exotoxins:

a. are involved in meningitis
b. are involved in whooping cough
c. are involved in gas gangrene
d. are involved in staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome
e. are involved in tetanus

40. Endotoxins: 

a. can survive autoclaving
b. are found in some bacterial cell walls
c. elicit an antibody response

41. Actions of penicillin, rifampicin, gentamicin and fusidic acid.

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