Test 36 (statistics)
1. A 95 % confidence interval:
a. can only be used in parametric data

b. it is a test of the null hypothesis

c. it is calculated at ± 1.96 times the standard error of the mean

d. is useful when comparing data with another population

e. if zero difference lies within the 95% when comparing two groups to a 
    treatment, it indicates the treatment has no effect

2. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials:

a. should only include peer-reviewed studies

b. is usually performed if individual trials are too small to give a reliable answers

c. should include trials in which patient selection is not randomized

d. provides a more stable estimate of the effect of treatment than individual trials

e. gives conclusion making further controlled trials unnecessary

3. The following are true about evidence-based medicine:

a. does not involve health economic assessment

b. is restricted to randomized placebo-controlled trials

c. is used to cut down waiting list

d. relies only on objective measurements of disease outcomes

e. combines clinical expertise and external evidence

4. The following are true about errors in clinical trials:

a. type I error is wrongly rejecting the null hypothesis

b. type II error is accepting the null hypothesis when it is invalid

c. errors are more common when big samples are used

d. type I error is more likely to occur when multiple t-test are used

e. type II error is reduced by the use of confidence interval.

5. The following are true about a normal (Gaussian distribution):

a. the mean, median and mode coincide

b. 95% of observation lie between the mean 2 standard deviation

c. 68% of observations lie between the mean 1 standard deviation

d. the 95% confidence interval may be calculated as the mean ±1.96 times 
    the standard error of the mean for population >30

e. data from a normal distribution is suitable for parametric tests without
    prior transformation.


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