Past MRCOphth / MRCS topics January, 2003
1. Aspirin modifies the sensation and reaction to pain 

2. Y chromosome smaller than X 

3. vasa recta are blood vessels 

4. Descending loop of Henle is impermeable to Na and Cl 

5. Stereopsis is served by both magnocellular and parvocellular system 

6. Saccadic movements are present at birth 

7. Corneal transparency depends on the tear film 

8. Actin is a minor constituent of most cells 
    and actin is an intermediate filament 

9. Elastin is made of cross-linkages of proline and glycine 

10. Rhodopsin gene is found on chromosome 3 

11. Myeline sheet is produced by:

a. oligodendrocytes 
b. Schwann cells 
12. Pupil:
a. is dilated by substance P
b. is dependent on photoreceptor integrity
c. dilatation is controlled by the parasympathetic pathway

14. Visual acuity improves when the pupil diameter is less than 2 mm 

15. Stereopsis:

a. requires bifoveal fixation
b. is developed immediately after birth
c. normal value is 60 degree of arc
16. Cones:
a. are taller in fovea
b. are thinner in fovea
c. are absent in peripheral retina
17. RPE:
a. contains melanin in its apical region
b. has the highest concentration of melanin in the fovea
c. contains gap junction between cells. 

18. The following  are germ cell tumour:

a. Wilm's tumour
b. yoke sac tumour
c. retinoblastoma
d. ovarian carcinoma
e. choristoma 

19. Chlamydia is sensitive to 

a. sulfonamide
b. tetracycline
c. metronidazole

20. Acantoamoeba:

a. is cultured on plate coated with E.Coli
b. phagocytose corneal keratocytes
c. is commoner with gas permeable than soft contact lens wearer
21. The roof of the fourth ventricle is formed by:
a. pia meter
b. choroidal plexus
c. foramen of Lusaka. 
22. Entopic phenomenon

23. Nerves passing through the circle of Zinn

24. PCR

25. Statements about Bruch's membrane:
    A- has five well defined layers
    B-is penetrated by the choriocapillaries
    C-is 2-4 mm thick
    D-is secrated by the RPE
    E-is absent at the fovea

25-the Trochlear nerve:

    A-is vulnerable to head injury
    B-passes between the posterior cerebral and the superior cerebellar arteries
    C-passes through the anterior medullary vellum
    D-lies in the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus
    E-innervates the superior oblique muscle on its inferior surface

26. The following arteries make up the circle of Willis:

    A-the anterior communicating artery
    B-the internal carotid artery
    C-the posterior cerebral artery
    D-the basilar artery
    E-anterior cerebral artery

27. The following structure arise from the neural crest:

    A-optic nerve and its meninges
    B-orbital bones
    C-ciliary epithelium
    E-lens epithelium

28. The lens zonules:

    A-comprises of collagen type II and to a lesser extent 
         type IV
    B-are attached to the lens 2 mm anterior to the equator
    C-are attached to the valley areas of the ciliary 
    D-cystine makes up 7% of their structure
    E-are produced by the pars plicata of the ciliary

29. The corneal endothelium:

    A-is made up of 2-3 layers of cells
    B-are squamous stratified cells
    C-have tight junctions between cells
    D-has a HCO3- pump
    E-may maintain clarity of the cornea even when only 50% of its cell population are left
30. Histamine released by: macrophage , lymphokines , mast
cells , basophils , neutrophils 

31. Ethiophate : Muscarinic blocker , used to treat lid lic
, lower IOP by suppressing aqueous production.

32. Which of these are not present in sarcoidosis : giant
cells , epitheloid cells , caseations , Shummas bodies.

33. Long term use of steroid (7.5 mg) can cause:
oligouria , muscle fasciculation , suppression of ACTH
release .

34. Which of these antibiotics act on the cell wall: penicillin , vancomycin , sulphonamide , tetracycline , erythromycin , chloramphenicol.

35. Viruses: can result in host cell lysis , 
HIV : CD4 is a receptor for HIV , can transmit
from mother to foetus , antibodies can be detected within 3 months
of infection , can cause tumours.

36. Which of these drugs cause increased intracranial
pressure : steroids , azetazolamides , vitamin A ,
ethambutol , tetracycline .

37. First line treatment of endophthalmitis : 
oral steroids , intravitreal vancomycin, oral
chloramphenicol , subconjunctival gentamycin ,
intravitreal gentamycin .

38. TB : BCG can be given to neonate , caseation may
contain live mycobacterium , can be diagnosed with
circulating antibodies easily , .

39. Tetanus : exposure to tetanus first time can cause
life long immunity , it can cause anaphylaxis reaction
, toxins produced by C perferinges.

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