Test 12 (General physiology)
1. Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter at:

                   a. sweat glands 

                   b. the adrenal medulla

                   c. parasympathetic ganglia

                   d. the parotid gland

                   e. the neuromuscular junction

2. Capillary permeability is increased by:

                  a. bradykinin

                  b. adrenaline

                  c. calcium

                  d. vasopressin

                  e. histamine 

3. Glucagon:

                   a. is a positive inotrope

                   b. is produced by the beta cells of the pancreas

                   c. stimulates production of free fatty acids in the blood

                   d. its release is increased in starvation

                   e. stimulates glycogen synthesis

4. Adrenaline:

                   a. is synthesized by demethylation of noradrenaline

                   b. increases coronary blood flow

                   c. increases free fatty acids in the blood

                   d. mobilizes glycogen stores from the liver

                   e. is metabolized in the plasma by monoamine oxidase

5. With reference to the skeletal muscle myofilaments

                   a. actin is the major constituent of thin filaments

                   b. myosin and tropomyosin combine to form the thick filaments

                   c. troponin is a constituents of thin filaments

                   d. tropomyosin prevents the interaction of actin and myosin in the resting state

                   e. troponin C has 4 calcium binding sites

6. Ablation of the stellate ganglion cuases:

                   a. dilatation of the ipsilateral pupil

                   b. vasodilatation of the ipsilateral arm

                   c. posteral hypotension

                   d. loss of consensual light reflex

                   e. loss of ipsilateral lacrimation

7. Compared with intracellular fluid, extracellular fluid has,

                   a. a greater osmolarity

                   b. a higher protein concentration

                   c. a lower chloride ion concentration

                   d. a lower hydrogen ion concentration

                   e. a lower potassium ion concentration

8. The sequence of events in muscle contraction

                     a. action potential depolarise the T-tubules 

                     b. depolarisation of T-tubules release calcium from sarcoplasmic reticulum 

                     c. calcium binds to the troponin-tropomycin complex 

                     d. actin combines with myosin ATP leading to crossbridge activation 

                     e. calcium moves back into sarcoplasmic reticulum by passive transport 

9. C fibres transmitting pain sensation 

                       a. are present in less numbers than Ad fibres in sensory nerves 

                       b. conduct at an average velocity of 2 metres/secon

                       c. convey temperature sensation 

                       d. terminate in laminae 2 and 3 of the dorsal horn 

                       e. are the sole nociceptive afferents from viscera in the chest and abdomen 

10. A highly ionised drug: 

                        a. is well absorbed from the intestine 

                        b. is excreted mainly in the kidney 

                       c. crosses the placental barrier easily 

                       d. is reabsorbed from the renal tubule 

                       e. is highly protein bound 


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