|Short Answer Questions 2006|
TIME ALLOWED FOR THIS EXAMINATION: 3 HOURS
PLEASE ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS IT IS RECOMMENDED THAT YOU DO NOT SPEND MORE THAN 15 MINUTES ON EACH QUESTION.
1. Describe with the aid of a diagram the anatomy of the third nerve nucleus.
2. Describe the structure of the optic nerve head and the changes that occur in it in glaucoma.
3. What is mesenchyme and what are its origins? Briefly describe how mesenchyme contributes to eye developments and which ocular structures are mesenchymal in origin?
4. Write short notes on the bloods aqueous and bloods retinal barriers.
5. What is dark adaptation? Describe the molecular events that underlie this process.
6. Explain the terms odds ratio, relative risk and kappa.
7. How does local anesthetics work, and describe the local and systemic side effects.
8. Outline the major causes and clinical effects of acquired immunodeficiency.
9. Outline the major microvascular complications of diabetes.
10. Describe the structure and functional characteristics of three different
types of non-
11. Describe the functional anatomy of the lymph node and the spleen.
What are the major differences and how do they participate in the development
12. Describe the molecular structure of antibodies and compare / contrast
the different antibody classes? What is the difference in antibody induction
between a primary and a secondary antibody response? How are IgE antibodies
involved in allergic disease e.g. of the conjunctiva or respiratory tract?
1. Describe the structure of lamina cribrosa. What is its relation to central retinal vein?
2. Describe the structure and function of the ciliary body.
3. Describe the development and anatomy of the adult retinal vasculature.
4. What are the crystallins in lens and what modification occurs during aging?
5. What are the factors limiting visual resolution?
6. What is: a. binomial distribution, b. binomial mean, c. entopy and d. normal distribution?
7. What are the mechanisms of pharmacological pupil dilatation and the.factors determining the duration of action.
8. Describe the ways by which cross infection occurs? Name 4 measures to decrease such incidence.
9. What are the features used by histopathologist to predict the behaviour of tumours?
10. Describe the range of genetic abnormalities that occur in development of neoplasia.
11.How is HLA system important in opthalmology? How does it differ from the ABO system?
12. What is innate immunity? How is it activated? Ws there any specificity
in interaction between innate immune cells and micro-organisms?