|Short Answer Questions 2005|
TUESDAY 25th January 2005
TIME ALLOWED FOR THIS EXAMINATION: 3 HOURS
PLEASE ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS IT IS RECOMMENDED THAT YOU DO NOT SPEND MORE THAN 15 MINUTES ON EACH QUESTION.
1. Give an account of the anatomy of the superior rectus muscle including
2. Give an account of the course of the 4th cranial nerve.
3. Describe with the aid of diagrams the different types of inter cellular junctions.
4. Describe the embryological development of the vitreous and 2 malformations.
5. Write short notes on regression analysis, p value and power of a study.
6. Write short note on the genetics of retinoblastoma.
7. What are free radicals and how does the eye protect itself against
8. Discuss the pathogenic processes in allergic eye disease.
9. Describe with examples the mechanism by which bacteria acquire anti microbial resistance.
10. Describe the underlying causes of
a) TIA and
12. Write short note on congenital and acquired loss of colour vision.
1. Describe with the aid of a diagram, the structure of the nasolacrimal duct.
2. Describe the anatomy and relations of the pituitary gland.
3. Describe the principle biochemical reactions during phototransduction.
4. What is coloboma? Write short notes on eyelid, iris, retinal and optic disc colobomata.
5. Describe with the aid of a diagram normal distribution and explain the terms mean, median and standard deviation.
6. Describe the structure of the corneal limbus and relate this to its function.
7. Describe the corneal endothelial cell pump.
8. What is meant by ocular immune privilege? Which non ocular tissues have immune privilege.
9. Describe mechanisms of sterilization of ophthalmic operation instruments, tubing and intra-ocular lenses.
10. Discuss the role of angiogenesis in tumour growth. How is angiogenesis regulated.
11. What are prostaglandins? How are their effects modified by drug therapy in the eye.
12. Write short notes on retinal rivalry, ocular dominance and Pulfrich's phenomenon.
1. Describe the neural pathways inolved in the innervation of the lacrimal gland.
2. Describe the relationships of paranasal sinuses to the bones of the walls of the orbit
3. Describe the anatomy of the hyaloid vascular system,timing of formationm and regression and abnormalities caused by failure of complete regression.
4. Write short notes on the composition and origin of the tear film.
5. Compare and control the blood flow in the retina and choroid.
6. When would you use the following designs?
a.case control7. Describe with examples the benefits and risks of intracameral and intravitreal drug administration.
8. Describe the structure of chlamydial organism and outline the range of infections that these organisms produce in man.
9. Write short notes on pathology of phototoxity of the retina.
10. Describe two acquired and two genetically determined causes of venous thrombosis.
a. What is underdstood by the term immunological privelege?12.
a.what are the clinical symptoms and signs of corneal graft rejection?