Test 89    (physiology)
1. The effect of noradrenaline on the heart include:
a. tachycardiac

b. increased duration of the cardiac action potential

c. decreased potassium conductance of the membranes 
    of pacemaker cells

d. increased strength of cardiac contraction

e. increased concentration of free calcium in the myoplasm

2. The following are true about potassium:

a. hypokalaemia decreases the time of cardiac 

b. hyperkalaemia decreases cardiac contraction

c. hyperkalaemia relaxes vascular smooth muscle 

d. hyperkalaemia is seen in decreased aldosterone 

e. fruits such as banana are high in potassium

3. The following are true about aldosterone:

a. it is secreted by the adrenal medulla 

b. its secretion is stimulated by decreased blood volume

c. it stimulates active reabsorption of sodium in the distal 
    renal tubules.

d. it causes increased secretion of potassium by the distal
    renal tubules.

e. abnormal secretion occurs in Conn's syndrome.

4. True statements about aldosterone include:

a. secretion is mainly under the control of 
    adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH) hormone secretion

b. increases hepatic gluconeogenesis

c. its secretion is stimulated by angiotensin

d. in the kidney, mainly acts on the proximal convoluted 

e. metabolic alkalosis occurs with over-secretion.

5. Following a major operation in a normal person, the following
    are seen:

a. fluid retention

b. decreased metabolic rate

c. potassium retention

d. decreased heart rate

e. fall in blood glucose concentration

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