Test 67      (head and neck anatomy)
(only the answers are provided, for detailed explanation please consult standard anatomy textbook such as Snell's Clinical Antomy.)
1. In spasmodic torticollis of the right sternocleidomastoid muscle:
a. the head is turned to the left
b. division of the cranial root of the accessory nerve 
     relieves the spasm
c. the motor nerve leaves the skull through the jugular 
d. surgical treatment involves nerve division in the 
    posterior triangle
e. the muscle in spasm has two heads attached to the 

2. The left phrenic nerve:

a. is anterior to the left scalenus anterior muscle
b. is anterior to the termination of the thoracic duct
c. is posterior to the prevertebral fascia
d. is posterior to the internal jugular vein
e. carries sensory afferents from the pleura and the 

3. The carotid sinus:

a. is situated at the commencement of the internal carotid 
b. is within the carotid sheath
c. is a chemoreceptor
d. is supplied by the glossopharyngeal nerve
e. is located where the hypoglossal nerve crosses the 
   carotid arteries

4. The superior cervical sympathetic ganglion:

a. is related to the axis vertebra
b. gives preganglionic fibres to the pharyngeal plexus
c. gives grey rami to the upper cervical nerve
d. receives preganglionic fibres from the first thoracic 
    cord segment
e. lies in front of the prevertebral fascia

5. The atlas:

a. has the internal jugular vein anterior to its transverse
b. has the anterior longitudinal ligament attached to its 
    anterior tubercle
c. has the scalenus anterior attached to its transverse 
d. is attached to the dens of the axis by transverse 
e. is directly related to the vertebral artery with the 
    anterior and posterior rami of the first cervical nerve 
    lying between artery and bone.

6. The structures at risk during surgical operations include:

a. the hypoglossal nerve in exposure of the internal 
    carotid artery
b. the phrenic nerve in exposure of the second part of 
   the subclavian artery
c. the recurrent laryngeal nerve in ligature of the superior 
    thyroid artery
d. the vagus nerve in a radical block dissection of the 
e. the lingual artery in tosillectomy


7. The infratemporal fossa:
a. lies below the middle cranial fossa
b. is partly bounded by the styloid process and carotid 
c. contains the otic ganglion
d. is enclosed by a dense fibrous capsule
e. contains the greater part of the parotid gland

8. The soft palate:

a. has non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium on 
    both surfaces
b. has salivary glands
c. has aponeurosis attached to the upper surface of the 
    horizontal plate of the palatine bone
d. is supplied by the facial artery
e. receives a nerve supply from the glossopharyngeal 

9. The muscular wall of the pharynx has attachment to:

a. body of mandible
b. zygomatic process of maxilla
c. greater corneu of hyoid
d. lamina of thyroid cartilage
e. lamina of cricoid cartilage


10. The piriform fossa:
a.  is supplied by the internal laryngeal nerve
b. is part of the larynx
c. is bounded by the thyrohyoid and quadrate 
d. is narrow above and broad below
e. is traversed by liquids during swallowing


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