Test 200  (Ocular pathology)
1. Microaneurysms:
a. are dilatations of the retinal veins

b. can be distinguished from dot haemorrhages 
    by fluorescein angiography

c. are 10mm to 100mm in diameter

d. are usually found in areas of retinal non-perfusion

e. may develop a hyalined wall and appear white


2. Cotton wool spots:

a. result from arteriolar occlusion in the nerve fibre layer

b. are usually less than one disc diameter 

c. are found mainly adjacent to the major vascular arcade

d. result from interruption of axoplasmic flow

e. seen in diabetes mellitus tend to persist longer than 
    those in hypertensive retinopathy

3. The following factors are important in angiogenesis in diabetic 
a. tissue necrosis factor

b. basic fibroblast growth factor

c. lymphokines

d.  insulin-like growth factor

e. vascular endothelial growth factor

. 4. Siderosis bulbi:
a. is commonly the result of incompletely removed 
    corneal foreign body containing iron

b. causes miosis which does not respond to light

c. causes iris hyperpigmentation

d. gives an initial supernormal signal in electroretinography
    followed by a progressive decrease in the b-wave 

e. causes subcapsular sunflower cataract

5. Optic disc drusen:

a. usually contains calcium

b. is associated with age-related macular degeneration

c. is associated with angioid streaks

d. is associated with venous obstruction

e. causes visual field abnormalities

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