Past Part 1 MRCOphth: 12
1. The lacrimal gland:
a. is a mucous gland
b. is supplied by parasympathetic fibres after rely in the pterygopalatine 
c. the palpebral part is the preferred site for biopsy
d. is responsible for the most posterior layer of the tear film
e. is made up of alveoli and two dozens ducts

2. The choroidal fissure:

a. fuses at about seventh week of gestation
b. failure to close can occur in association with cleft lip or palate
c. closure starts most posteriorly and proceeds anteriorly till completion
d. allows the exit of the hyaloid artery
e. coloboma can affect the iris, ciliary body, choroid, retina or optic nerve.
3. The ciliary ganglion:
a. lies on the medial aspect of the optic nerve
b. is one third of the way from the back of the eye to the apex
c. sympathetic fibres from the middle cervical ganglion passes through the 
    ganglion without relay
d. parasympathetic fibres are carried to the ganglion in the nerve to the 
    inferior oblique
e. most of the postganglionic fibres in the short ciliary nerves supply the muscle of the ciliary body for accommodation

4. The optic nerve:

a. in the orbit the anterior 1 cm is supplied by the central retinal artery
b. in the orbit the posterior 3 cm received a branch from the ophthalmic 
c. the intracranial portion is supplied by the middle cerebral artery
d. the optic nerve travels through the optic canal with the ophthalmic
    artery superior and lateral to it.
e. meets the sclera at the posterior pole

5. Horner's syndrome:

a. marked ptosis
b. impaired reaction to light and accommodation
c. increased amplitude of accommodation
d. sweating on ipsilateral side of face if lesion is below the superior cervical 
e. the pupil dilates with cocaine eyedrop

6. Concerning the ciliary ganglion:

a. it is about 4 mm in diameter
b. it is lateral to the optic nerve
c. its sensory root is a branch of the nasociliary nerve passes through the 
    ganglion without relay and supply the whole eyeball except the 
d. the majority of the postganglionic parasympathetic fibres from the 
    ganglion supply the sphincter muscle and cause pupillary constriction
e. it gives rise to long ciliary nerve

7. Concerning the ophthalmic division of trigeminal nerve:

a. lacrimal branch supplies the skin of upper eyelid
b. infratrochlear nerve arises from the nasociliary nerve supply the lower lid
c. the frontal nerve passes forward beneath the roof of the orbit on the 
    upper surface of the superior rectus muscle
d. nasociliary nerve is the largest branch fo the ophthalmic nerve
e. the lacrimal nerve contains sympathetic fibres to supply the lacrimal gland

8. Lens:

a. stability of the lens protein depends on reduced sulfhydryl (SH) group
b. ascorbic acid level is higher than the aqueous level
c. glucose oxidized to sorbital in diabetic cataract
d. do not absorb ultraviolet light
e. most of the mitotic cells are in the anterior pole

9. Accommodation:

a. pupil dilates during accommodation
b. the anterior pole of the lens moves forward
c. the lens sinks in the direction of gravity
d. ciliary muscle pulls the choroid forward
e. central region of anterior capsule of lens is thicker than peripheral

10. Visual pigment:

a. all-trans-retinaldehyde is isomerized to 11-cis-retinaldehyde when exposed
    to light
b. peak absorption of rhodopsin is about 800nm
c. retinoid is recycled within the photoreceptor cells
d. most retinol exits in free form in blood
e. uptake of retinol from blood depends on pigment epithelium.
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