Test 197  (Pharmacology)
1. Ethylene oxide:
a. can achieve sterilization at a temperature of 550C

b. can be used to sterilize instruments that can not 
    withstand autoclaving

c. acts quicker than heat sterilization

d. is an efficient way of sterilizing plastic instrument

e. is toxic to the skin


2. Hyalurodinase:

a. breaks down collagen

b. increases the permeability of the blood vessels

c. helps the spread of local anaesthesia 

d. does not affect tissue permeability beyond 48 hours

e. should be avoided in retrobulbar anaesthesia due to 
    the high risk of brainstem anaesthesia


3. The following are true about adrenaline:
a. it decreases the metabolism of local anaesthetic

b. when combined with local anaesthetics gives a solution 
    with acidic pH

c. when combined with local anaesthetic increases the 
    pain of injection 

d. it should be avoided in peribulbar injection due to 
    the risk of central retinal artery occlusion

e. its total dose should not exceed 500mg in adult

. 4. Detergents:
a. with antiseptic properties are made up of 
    cationic agents

b. are combined with iodine to prepare the eyes for 
    intraocular operation

c. are more effective against Gram positive than Gram 
    negative bacteria

d. can cause corneal endothelium damage if allowed to 
    enter the anterior chamber

e. are used pre-operatively as surgical scrub

5. Alcohol:

a. causes protein coagulation

b. of 70% concentration can be used as an antiseptic

c. causes de-epithelization when applied to the cornea

d. can be injected retrobulbarly to treat painful blind eye

e. found in Medi-swab is isopropyl alcohol (isopropanol)

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