Test 174 (Miscellaneous)
1. The following are true with regard to retinal neovascularization: 
a. normal retinal neovascularization begins at 10 weeks' 
b. the temporal retina is the last to become vascularized.

c. vascularization of the nasal retina is complete at 36 
    weeks' gestation

d. both birth weight and gestational age of the baby are
    important factor in the development of retinopathy of

e. unless treated retinopathy of prematurity is a 
    progressive disease 

2. The following are true about vitamin A deficiency:

a. night blindness is a late sign.

b. Bitot's spots are caused by conjunctiva metaplasia.

c. Bitot's spots are found mainly on the nasal bulbar 

d. sterile corneal ulceration is a feature.

e. the immune system is impaired by vitamin A deficiency.

3. With regard to world blindness:
a. the WHO (World Health Organization) definition of 
    blindness is vision of <3/60

b. the WHO uses a trichotomous scale (normal/low 
    vision/blindness) for vision

c. blindness from trachoma is caused by trichiasis

d. trachoma is the most common cause of blindness in the 

e. about 17 millions in the world are blind as a result of 

. 4. With regard to meta-analysis:
a. pooling can be used

b. two or more similar randomized controlled trials are 
    combined to increase the estimate of the direction and 
    the strength of an intervention effect.

c. there are two method for meta-analysis

d. a better result can be obtained by combining individual 
    patient data from the original studies for data reanalysis

e. it involves weighing individual studies against 
    predetermined methodlogic criteria with the results
    reflecting the weighted value.

5. With regard to evidence based medicine:

a. only evidence obtained by prospective randomized 
    clinical trials should be used

b. it involves the application of clinical expertise and the 
    best available clinical evidence to give sound advice for 
    health decision

c. it provides a blueprint for clinical decision making

d.  the evidence used should be subjected to quality scale
     in order to evaluate the evidence.

e. the treatment must be inexpensive

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