Duke-Elder multiple choice questions II
1. Astigmatism:
a. usually develops later in life
b. is usually irregular
c. can be treated with contact lenses
d. is progressive
e. is common following corneal graft

2. Systemic steroids:

a. can cause glaucoma
b. can cause cataracts
c. can increase hypertension 
d. causes diabetic retinopathy
e. causes blepharitis

3. Side effects of acetazolamide:

a. paraesthesia
b. renal stone
c. indigestion
d. weight loss
e. diuresis

4. Causes of severe visual loss occurs in:

a. episcleritis
b. scleritis
c. uveitis
d. bacterial keratitis
e. vitritis

5. Treatment of chronic primary open angle glaucoma:

a. beta blocker
b. miotics
c. mydriatics
d. carbonic anhydrase
e. alpha blockers

6. Acute primary angle closure glaucoma:

a. can occur after being in the dark for two hours
b. can cause cataract
c. rarely needs surgery
d. causes nausea and vomiting
e. is more common in myopic than hypermetropic patients

7. The following are features of vernal conjunctivitis:

a. corneal ulcer
b. Bitot's spots
c. mucous discharge
d. cobblestone papillae
e. pterygium

8. Sicca syndrome occurs in:

a. systemic lupus erythematosus
b. rheumatoid arthritis
c. Behcet's syndrome
d. Steven-Johnson's syndrome
e. scleroderma

9. Intraocular foreign body:

a. is always painful
b. requires orbital X-ray
c. requires MRI
d. can lead to sympathetic ophthalmia in fellow eye
e. entry wound is always visible

10. Contact lenses are useful in:

a. albinism
b. irregular corneal surface
c. conical corneal
d. unilateral aphakia
e. neurotrophic corneal ulcer

11. Esotropia in a 5 year old:

a. can be treated with mydriatics
b. can be improved with minus lenses
c. can be improved with bifocal lenses
d. requires early operation
e. is a cause of amblyopia

12. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus:

a. causes anterior uveitis
b. causes hyphaema
c. causes iris atrophy
d. causes optic atrophy
e. causes retinal necrosis

13. Causes of cataract include:

a. radiation
b. beta blockers
c. vincristine
d. chlorpromazine
e. amiodarone

14. Advantages of extracapsular cataract extraction over intracapsular cataract extraction include:

a. decrease incidence of cystoid macular oedema
b. decrease retinal detachment in aphakia
c. decreases uveitis
d. allows posterior lens implant
e. the wound is smaller

15. Topical steroids:

a. is used in iritis associated with ankylosing spondylitis
b. increase the recovery rate of dendritic ulcer
c. can cause cataract
d. causes glaucoma
e. causes suppression of adrenal steroid secretion

16. The following are signs of ischaemia in diabetes mellitus:

a. flame haemorrhage
b. microaneurysm
c. macular oedema
d. new vessel formation
e. cotton-wool spots

17. Causes of uveitis include:

a. sarcoidosis
b. Perthes' disease
c. Behcet's disease
d. rheumatoid arthritis
e. diabetes mellitus

18. In right superior oblique palsy:

a. the left eye is higher in primary gaze
b. there is head tilt to the left
c. diplopia is worst on looking to the left
d. diplopia is worst for near than distant
e. diplopia is worst with head tilt to the right

19. During ocular convergence:

a. the inferior oblique muscle is used
b. the medial rectus is involved
c. the lateral rectus is activated
d. causes pupillary changes
e. stimulates accommodation

20. Brief retinal stimulation with bright flash light:

a. causes Purkinje image
b. cause Purkinje shift
c. causes retinal inhibition
d. causes positive after images
e. causes negative after images
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