III External eye disease, sclera, cornea and anterior uvea
Essential topics/experience:
To have become familiar with the following:

i. Infectious external disease: including viral, bacterial and chlamydial conjunctivitis.

ii. The dry eye: including symptoms, assessment of reduced tear production and tear film
stability, and treatment.

iii. Allergic and atopic eye disease: recognition and management.

iv. Corneal ulceration: from viral and bacterial disease; marginal keratitis.

v. Complications of contact lens wear.

vi. Corneal oedema, opacity and ectasia: indications for corneal transplantation; standards of
care in donor eye procurement; signs of corneal graft rejection and other complications.

vii. Episcleritis: recognition and management.

viii. Anterior uveitis: including classification, differential diagnosis, systemic associations,
investigation and treatment.

ix. Liaison: with microbiology, immunology.

Practical skills:
To have undertaken (under supervision until proficient) the following:

i. Conjunctival sampling and corneal scraping for microbiological investigation.

ii. Pachometry for corneal thickness.

iii. Keratometry and Placido’s disc.

iv. Removal of corneal sutures.

v. Retrieval of donor eyes for transplantation [5].

Background theory/principles:
To have gained an awareness of the following:

i. Acanthamoeba keratitis and fungal keratitis.

ii. Cicatricial conjunctival disease.

iii. Punctal occlusion.

iv. Corneal topography and specular microscopy.

v. Corneal stromal dystrophies, interstitial keratitis.

vi. Corneal biopsy: indications.

vii. Chemical injury of the cornea and conjunctiva.

viii. Therapeutic contact lenses and their complications.

ix. Corneal transplantation: immunology of rejection.

x. Limbal stem cell transplantation.

xi. Autoimmune corneal and scleral disease including peripheral ulcerative keratitis.

xii. Use of immunosuppresive therapies.

xiii. Management of pterygium.

xiv. Conjunctival and uveal tumours.

xv. Aniridia and other dysgenesis.

xvi. Fuch’s heterochromic cyclitis.

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